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 NYC EVENTS FOR OCTOBER 2019 
 --------------------------
 John Pazmino 
 NYSkies Astronomy In+c  
 nyskies@nyskies.org 
   wwww.nyskies.org 

    The following astronomy activities in the commuting ring enclosing 
New York City are operated by various organizations. A few cultural  
tems of special importance to City astronomers are also included.  
    Altho NYC Events confirms the listed items, they are subject to 
change by their sponsors. Check with their contacts. Let the sponsor  
know that you learned of its event thru NYC Events.  
    Frequently asked questions and explanation of NYC Events is at 
'www.nyskies.org/nyc-faq.htm'.  
    You may ask for previous NYC Events thru 'nyskies@nyskies.org' 
because only the current issue is in the website. It is replaced by  
next month's issue.  
    For events which missed NYC Events, check the NYSkies Yahoogroup 
forum. Join NYSkies by visiting 'www.nyskies.org/yahoo.htm' and 
picking either the email or  website option.  
    All hours are Eastern Da/ylight Savings Time (UT - 4h). 

General notes 
 -----------                           / 
    'whole City' means the event has no specific or dedicated place. 
It may be enjoyed from the whole NYSkies territory or at a number of 
individual places. Celestial events are typicly 'whole City' events.  
c    'all day' means the event is continuous or repeating during the 
open hours of the host facility. Facilities may have limited hours per 
day or days per week. Check with the event contacts.  
    'adv regn reqd',for 'advance registration required/requested' 
means that the event requires or requests signing up before the event. 
You must have your ticket in hand at the gate. There could be a 
deadline some days before the event, after which no more signups are 
accepted. Check with the event contact for specifics. 
    Prices cited are the 'rack rate'. You could qualify for discounts 
 As may be offered by the sponsor. Besides the base price there may be 
noptional extra fees to consider. 

Current Month calendar  
 --------------------
  Plain dates are in current month;  
  -, previous month; +, next month. 
  #, NYSkies Astronomy Seminar 
  Moon phase: .NM., .FQ), (FM), (LQ.  
  Sunset is noted for each Saturday  
  ---------------------------------
   Sun   Mon   Tue   Wed   Thu   Fri   Sat  sunset 
   ---   ---   ---   ---   ---   ---   ---  ------
   -29   -30     1     2     3     4#   .5) 18:32 
     6     7     8     9    10    11    12  18:21 
   (13)   14    15    16    17     18#  19  18:10 
    20   .21)   22    23    24     25   26  18:00 
   .27.   28    29    30    31     +1#  +2  17:51 
 ----------------------------------------------

Index  of Events  / ------------- 
 * = NASA-JPL Night Sky Network affiliate  
 Date = entry in 'list of events' section 
 '0' = entry in 'ongoing and continuing events' section 
 'ART',= entry in 'skipped, autumnt resumption' section 
  'SPR' = entrt in 'skipped, spring resumption' secrion 
  '???' = entry in 'skipped, uncertain resumption' seciton 
 ------- -----------------------------------------------
    BROOKLYN - BK 
  Astronomy on Tap  - - - - 16 
  Canarsie line curtailment  0 
 *Floyd Bennett Field - - -  4 
  Secret Science Club - - -  0 

    CONNECTICUT - CT 
 *A S of Gtr Hartford   - - 16 
  Astro Soc of Greenwich  - 27 
 *Astro Soc of New Haven  - 29 
  Bowman Observatory  - - -  2, 16 
 *Litchfield Hills AAC mtg  11 
 *Litchfield Hills starvwg  25 
 *McCarthy Observatory  - - 12 
  New Pond Farm - - - - - -  5 
  Stamford Observatory  - -  4, 11, 18, 25 
 *Van Vleck Obsy (ASGH) - -  5 
  Van Vleck Obsy (WU) - - -  2, 9, 16, 23, 30 
  Western CT St Univ Obsy -  5, 19  
 *Westport Astro Soc mtg  - 15 
 *Westport Astro Soc starvg  2, 5, 9, 16, 23, 30       
  -------------------------
  Boothe Meml Astro Soc - 203-377-9933, 
    www.facebook.com/Boothe-Memorial-Astronomical-Society 

    LONG ISLAND - LI 
 *Amateur Observers Soc - -  6 
 *Amat Obsrs Soc starviewing 0 
  Amer Instt Aero & Astro - ???        
  Astro Soc of Long Island   2, 9, 16, 23, 30 
  Brookhaven National Lab - ??? 
  Custer Institute  - - - -  5, 12, 19, 26 
  Hofstra Univ Obsy - - - -  6 
  Montauk Observatory - - -  5 
  SUNY Stony Brook - -  - -  4 
 *Susan Rose Observatory  -  5, 12, 19, 26 
 
    MANHATTAN - MH  
  92nd Street Y - - - - - - 11 
 *Amat Astro Assn starvwg -  0 
 *Amat Astro Assn lecture -  4 
  Amer Instt Archarology  - 16 
  Canarsie line curtailment  0 
 Ctr for Atmosp Ocean Sci - 16, 23, 30 
  Ctr for Science & Society ??? 
  Central Pk (Great Lawn) -  4,5,6,11,12,13,18,19,20,25,26,27 
  City of Science - - - - - AUT 
 *Columbia Univ Obsy  - - -  4, 18 
  Columbus Day  - - - - - - 14 
  Earth Institute - - - - - ??? 
  Good Housekeeping lab - - 11 
  Gocernors Island  - - - -  1-31 
  Gullivar's Gate - - - - -  0 
  Hayden Planetarium  - - -  7 
  Instt Stud Ancnt World  - 15, 24, 30 
  Intrepid Museum - - - - - 25 
 *Inwood Astronomy Project   5, 12, 19, 26 
  Milky Way fall season - -  1-Nov 30 
  Natl Musm of Mathematics   2 
  NY Academy of Sciences  - AUT 
  NYC-H2O - - - - - - - - -  0 
  New York Map Society  - - 19 
  NYU Astrop & Relatvty - -  8, 22, 29 
 *NYSkies Astronomy Seminar  4, 18  
  Observer's Handbook offer  1-indef 
  Open House New York - - - 19-20 
  SciCafe' - - - - -  - - -  2 
  Simons Foundation - - - -  2 
 *Top of the Laawn  - - - -  4,5,6,11,12,13,18,19,20,25,26,27 
  TriState computer fair --  0 
  Urban Park Rangers  - - -  0 
  Weekend Walks - - - - - -  1-Dec 
  WTC station closings  - -- 0 
 -------------------------------
 Ctr for Space Sci Edu - - info@nyccsse.org, www.nyccsse.org,  
            212-608-6164 n 

    METRO-NORTH - NY  
  Lamont-Doherty Obsy - - -  4 
  Lamont-Doherty Open House  5 
  measles epidemic  - - - -  0 
  Mid-Hudson Astro Assn - - ??? 
  Ramapo Challenger Ctr - - 21 
  Rockland Astro Club - - -  5 
  Vassar College Obsrvatory  2, 9, 16, 23, 30   
  Ward Pound Ridge  - - - - 19 
  Westchester Amat Astro  -  4 

    NEW JERSEY - NJ  
  A A A of Princeton  - - -  8 
 *Amat Astro Inc meeting  -  4, 11, 25 
  *Amat Astro Inc lecture - 18 
  A S of Toms Rv Area - - - 11 
  Morris Musm Astro Soc - - 10 
  New Jersey Astro Assn - - 26 
  North Bergen Viaduct  - -  0 
  No Jersey Astro Gp mtg  -  9 
  No Jersey Astro Gp starvg  3, 10, 17, 24, 31 
  Peyton Observarory  - - - ??? 
  Plasma Physics Lab  - - -  4, 18 
  Rutgers Univ Astro Collqm  3, 10, 17, 24, 31 
  Rutgers Univ Astro Semnr   2, 9, 16, 23, 30   
 *S*T*A*R - - - - - - - - -  3 
  Schommer Observatory  - - 10, 17 
 *Sheep Hill Astro Assn - -  4 
 *Sheep Hill Observatory  - 48 
 *Utd Astro Clubs of NJ - -  5, 12, 19, 26 
  Washington Xing St Pk - -  4, 11, 18, 25 
  WTC station closings  - -  0 
  ---------------------------
  Dark Sky Observers - www.users.nac.net/gburke/club  
  McDowell Obsy - mec.rst2.edu, 201-460-8300 
  Montclair Telescope Club - 973-948-5284,,    
        users.erols.com/njastro/orgs/mtc.htm 
  NW Jersey Amat Astro - www.nwjaa.org, info@nwjaa.org 
  Passaic Co Astro Assn - www.users.nac.net/gburke/PCAA, 973-523-0024 
 *Raritan Vy Co Coll Plm  - www2.raritanval.edu/planetarium  
   Skyland Stargazers  -  skylandstargazers.tripod.com 

s    QUEENS - QN  
  York College Observatory  16 

    REST OF WORLD 

     STATEN ISLAND - SI 
  Coll of Staten Is Obsy  - AUT 
  Great Kills Park  - - - - 26 
  Staten Is Community TV  -  4, 11, 18, 25 

    THE BRONX - BX 

 ============================= 

Ongoing and continuing events 
  --------------------------
    all day - H&M WTC line - MH - WTC station closings s       Thru 
late 2020. World Trade Center station closes every 
        weekend to repair tunnels under Hudson River ruined by 
        hurricane Sandy. Station closes at 00h on each Saturday, 
        reopens at 05h on following Monday. WTC-bound trains turn at 
        Exchange Pl station. For service to WTC, use 33 St line to 
        connect to NYC subways. www.panynj.gov 
    all day - ehole county - NY - measles epidemic 
        Indef duration. Outbreaks of measles in several counties 
        in NYSkies. Of the 1,000+ cases in US, some 800 are in 
        NYSkies! UN WHO warned that if epidemic continues thru 
        yearend, it will revoke US status as a measles-free country. 
        Most counties offer free measles shots. Consult health 
        provider for precautions and vaccination. 
    all day - H&M WTC line - NJ - WTC station closings 
        Thru late 2020. World Trade Center station closes every 
        weekend to repair tunnels under Hudson River ruined by 
        hurricane Sandy. Station closes at 00h on each Saturday, 
        reopens at 05h on following Monday. WTC-bound trains turn at 
        Exchange Pl station. For service to WTC, use 33 St line to 
        connect to NYC subways. www.panynj.gov 
    all day - North Brgen Viaduct - NJ - road closings and rebuild 
        Thru end 2020.  One lane in each direction is closed during 
        major rebuild of viaduct on NJ495 between NJ Tpk and Lincoln 
        Tnl. Buses have priority on remaining lanes. On-off ramps for 
        local street close from time to time.  www.restorenj495.com 
    all day - Canarsie line - MH - night and weekend slowdown 
        Thru mid 2020. Curtailed service  20h to 05h daily and 20h 
        Fri-05h Mon on  weekends. Trains run single-track thru one 
        tunnel between Bedford Av statio aand 8th Av terminal. Round-
        trip takes about 20 minutes. Other track and tunnel are 
        closed. Service may change according as progress of work. 
        Normal two-way service runs 05h-20h on weekdays. www.mta.info. 
    all day - Canarsie line - BK - night and weekend slowdown 
        Thru mid 2020. Curtailed service  20h to 05h daily and 20h 
        Fri-05h Mon on  weekends. Trains run single-track thru one 
        tunnel between Bedford Av statio aand 8th Av terminal. Round-
        trip takes about 20 minutes. Other track and tunnel are 
        closed. Service may change according as progress of work. 
        Normal two-way service runs 05h-20h on weekdays. www.mta.info. 
     all day - whole island - LI - clearsky starviewing  
        VARIOUS PLACES, DATES, HOURS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Amat Obsrs Soc. Sessions convene in parks usually at dusk. 
        Occasional daytime sunviewing. Free. Cancelled for clouds. 
         www.aosny.org, suerose@optonline.net 
    all day - whole City - MH - cultural tour 
        VARIOUS LOCATIONS AND TIMES; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
        NYC-H2O. Walk, bike, ride thru history and culture of NYC 
        muwater system facilities and natural waterways in and near 
        the City.  Events are pay orfree, adn regn reqd. Bike tours 
        need own bike. www.nych2o.org, 
        matt@nych2o.org 
    all day - whole City - MH - clearsky starviewing  
        VARIOUS PLACES, DATES, HOURS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Amat Astro Assn. Sessions convene in parks usually at dusk. 
        Occasional daytime sunviewing. Free. Cancelled for clouds. 
          president@aaa.org, 718-522-5014, www.aaa.org  
    all day - whole City - MH - clearsky starviewing  
        VARIOUS PLACES, DATES, HOURS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Jupiter Joe's Sidewalk Astronomy. Sessions convene in parks 
        usually at dusk. Occasional daytime sunviewing. Free. `       
        Cancelled for clouds.  www.jupiterjoesastronomy.org, 
        jupiyerjoesastronomy@gmail.com 
    all day - Gullivaer's Gate - MH - cultural exhibit 
        indef duration. 216 W 44 St, 7/8 Av. Opened in mid April 2017 
        for preview. Miniature models of landmarks and important 
        structures from around the world. Rooms arranged by quarter of 
        world and for New York City. $36, timed ticket, adv regn reqd. 
        Optional cost for stereoprint of visitor into figurine placed 
        at desired item in exhibit. www.gulliversgate.com. 
    all day - whole City - MH - cultural tours & lectures 
        VARIOUS PLACES, DATES, HOURS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Urban Park Rangers. Tours of parks, landmarks, nabes, hoods. 
        Lectures on history and culture of NYC. Program varies each 
        month. Free. www.nyc.gov/parks  
    10:00 - whole City - MH - Tri-State Computer Fair 
        VARIOUS LOCATIONS, GENERALLY ON SUNDAYS 
        Source of computer systems, software, components, accessories. 
        $7. www.tri-statefairs.com, 718-227-5586 
    20:00 - Bell House - BK - Secret Science Club meeting  
        OCCASIONAL SESSIONS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
        149 7 St, 2/3 Av. Lecture and music on various science  
        topics. Free. secretscienceclub.blogspot.com, 718-638-4400, 

ist of Events 
 ------------                                                         
Tue  1 Oct 
    all day - whole City - MH - Observer's Handbook offer OPENS 
        The NYSkies offer for the 2020 RASC Onserver's Handbook opens 
        on September 16. The books are printed in mid October for 
        delivery to NYSkies in late October. You better put in 
        your request NOW. Cost is still $23 per copy, with P&P. 
        www.nyskies.org/oh.htm, nyskies@nyskies.org, 
        www.nyskies.org/ohclub.htm 
     all day - whole City - MH - Weekend Walks street fairs 
        VARIOUS LOCATIONS AND DATES; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
       Thru mid Dec. NYC Dept of Transptn closes certain steets in 
        all boros on Saturdayss for street fairs. Stores 
        and local orgs offer ntertainment, discount sales, exhibits, 
        food service Free.  
         www.nyc.gov/html/dot/weekendwalks/html/home/home.shtml 
    all day - Governors Island - MH - cultural shows 
        Thru 31 Oct. Island is open every day, 10h-20h. From May 24 
        thru Aug 30, Fri-Sat, 10h-22h. Walk and tour thru 
        former military base and new urban park. Shows vary each day 
        or visit by foot or bike. Ferries run every 1/2 hr from 
        Battery Marine Terml, MH, and on weekdays from Pier 6, BK. 
        Island is free but ferry fare is $2 RT. www.nps.gov/gois, 
        www.govisland.com 
    20:00 - whole City - MH - autumn Milky Way season 
        Thru Nov 30. Fall season for sighting Milky Way from within 
        NYC. Requires dark clear sky and thoro knowledge of normal 
        luminous graffiti in sky. Milky Way is in high west sky at 
        at nightfall. www.nyskies.org/articles/pazmino/milky-ny.htm 

Wed  2 Oct 
    10:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture 
         Colloquium series. Rutgers Univ, Busch Campus, Astro & Phys 
        Lecture Hall. Free. www.physics.rutgers.edu/colloquium, 
        732-445-3974+ 
     16:00 - Natl Musm of Mathematics - MH - science show 
        Also 19:00. 'Mathematical Encounters'. Free, adv regn 
        reqd. 212-542-0566, www.momath.org, info@momath.org 
    16:15 - Simons Foundation - MH - scinece lecture 
        160 5 Av & 21 St. 'Dark matter heats up in dwarf galaxies 
        Buffet smacks 16:15, lecture 17:00. Free, adv 
        regn reqd. 646-654-0066, ww.simonsfoundation.org 
    19:00 - Amer Musm Natl Hist - MH - SciCafe' show 
        Hall of Ocean Life or hall of planet Earth. Music, drinks, 
        chat with Museum scientists. Free, be 21 or be gone. GI photo 
        ID reqd. 212-769-5100, WWW.AMNH.ORG/PROGRAMS 
   19:30 - Greenwich - CT - clearsky starviewing 
        Astro Soc of Greenwich. Curtis Elem Schl, Bowman Obsy. Free. 
        Cancelled for clouds. rickbria@optonline.net, 203-415-6762. , 
        astrogreenwich.org 
    20:00 - Centerport - LI - Astro Soc of LI meeting  
        Vanderbilt Plm. Free. asliastronomy@yahoo.com, 
        www.asliclub.org 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing 
        MEETS ONLY DURING CLASSES; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
        Wesleyan U, Van Vleck Obsy. Free, cancelled for clouds. 
        860-685-3664, www.wesleyan.edu/astro/events 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  
        Westport Astro Soc. Rolnick Obsy.  Free. Cancelled for clouds. 
        www.was-ct.org, 203-227-0925 
    21:00 - Poughkeepsie - NY - clearsky starviewing 
        MEETS ONLY DURING CLASSES; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
        Vassar College, Observatory. Free. Cancelled for clouds. 
        physicsandastronomy.vassar.edu/observatory.html, 
        845-437-7340 

Thu  3 Oct 
    13:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture 
        Seminar series. Rutgers Univ, Serin W330. Free. 732-445-3974, 
        www.physics.rutgers.edu/ast/seminar 
    20:00 - Lincroft - NJ - S*T*A*R meeting 
        Brookdale Commty Coll, Mommouth Museum. Free. 
        www.starastronomy.org, s-walters@comcast.net 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - clearsky starviewing 
        No Jersey Astro Gp. Montclair St Univ, Richardson Hall.        
        Free, cancelled for clouds. njastro.org, 973-655-7266 

Fri  4 Oct 
    10:00 - Princeton - NJ - science tour 
        Plasma Physics Lab. Walk thru history and culture of fproject 
        to capture energy from controled hydrogen fusion. Free, adv 
        regn reqd. Have GI photo ID for campus security. 
        www.pppl.gov/events 
    15:30 - Palisades - NY - science lecture 
        Lamont-Doherty Earth Obsy, Comer Bldg. Various topics in 
        geophysics and earth science. Free, 845-365-8634, 
        www.ldeo.columbia.edu, suzana@ldeo.columbia.edu, 
    18:15 - Amer Musm Natl Hist - MH - Amat Astro Assn lecture 
         Kaufmann Theater. Free, no musm adm fee. 718-522-5014, 
         president@aaa.org, www.aaa.org 
    18:30 - McBurney House - MH - NYSkies Astronomy Seminar 
        DISCUSSION: AUTUMN STARS, EITH A FEW EXTRA GOODIES 
        125 W 14 St, 6/7 Av. Discussion of astronomy topics, show 
        & tell, skywatching reports, news of astro activity in NYSkies 
        territory. Free. nyskies@nyskies.org, www.nyskies.org 
    19:30 - Pleasantville - NY - Westchester Amat Astro meeting  
        Pace Univ, Lienhard Hall, Free.    
        www.westchesterastronomers.org, 
        waa-president@westchesterastronomers.org  
    19:30 - Cranford - NJ - Amat Astro Inc meeting 
        Union Co Coll, Sperry Obsy. Indoor talk, clearsky  
        starviewing. Free. www.asterism.org 
     19:30 - Stony Brook - LI - astronomy lecture                     
        SUNY Stony Brook, Earth & Spc Sci Hall. Indoor lecture, 
        clearsky starviewing. Free. www.ess.sunysb.edu/astro, 
        631-632-8100, slutterbie@notes.cc.sunysb.edu 
    19:30 - Staten Is Community TV - SI - science show 
        100 Cable Way, Mariners Hr SI. 'Geology forum' Live audience, 
        seating at 19:30, on air at 20:00. Free. www.sictv.org, 
        718-727-1414 
    19:30 - Boonton - NJ - Sheep Hill Astro Assn meeting  
        Boonton Senior Ctr. Free. www.sheephillastro.org, 
        contacts@sheephillastro.org, wwestura@optonline.net 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing 
        PLUS OCCASIONAL EXTRA SESSIONS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Top of the Lawn. North path of Great Lawn. Free. Cancelled for 
        clouds. tags_p@yahoo.com, www.nyskies.org, nyskies@nyskies.org 
    20:0:0 - Columbia University - MH - astronomy lecture 
          Pupin Hall, signs to lecture room. Indoor lecture, clearsky 
         starviewing. Free. outreach-admin@astro.columbia.edu, 
         www.astro.columbia.edu/outreach, 212-854-3278 
    20:00 - Floyd Bennett Field - BK - clearsky starviewing 
        Community Garden. NYSKies & Natl Park Svc. Free. Cancelled 
        for clouds. www.nyskies.org, stephenlieber@nyc.rr.com, 
        nyskies@nyskies.org 
    20;00 - Wash'n X'ing - NJ - clearsky starviewing 
        Amat Astro Assn of Princeton. Simpson Obsy. Free, cancelled 
       for clouds. www.princetonastronomy.org, 609-737-2575, 
       info@princetonastronomy.org 
     20:00 - Stamford - CT - astronomy lecture 
        Stamford Obsy. $5. Indoor lecture, clearsky starviewing. 
        203-322-6537, www.stamfordmuseum.org 
        info@stamfordmuseum.org 

Sat  5 Oct 
     10:00 - Palisades - NY - LDEO Open House 
        Lamont-Doherty Earth Obsy. Talks, demos, exhibits at world-
        class geological center. Food service. Free LDEO buses from 
Teachers 
        College, 120 St & Broadway starting 09:15. Free, 845-365-8634, 
        ldeo.columbia.edu 
    13:00 - East hampton - LI - astronomy lecture 
        Montauk Obsy. Guild Hall. Indoor talk, clearsky 
         sunviewing. Free. www.montaukobservatory.com 
    18:00 - Danbury - CT - astronomy lecture 
        Westn Conn St Uv, Obsy/Plm. Indoor planetarium show, 
        clearsky starviewing. Free. www.wcsu.edu/starwatch, 
       203-837-8671, dawsond@wcsu.edu 
    20:00 - Southold - LI - Custer Institute meeting 
        OCCASIONAL EXTRA EVENTS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Custer Instt. Indoor program, clearsky starviewing. $5-$15. 
        Varies with program. www.custerobservatory.org, 
        president@custerobservatory.org, 631-765-2626  
    20:00 - West Reading - CT - clearsky starviewing 
        New Pond Farm, obseratory. $10, adv regn reqd. cancelled for 
        clouds. www.newpondfarm.org, 203-938-2117 
    20:00 - Bear Mountain - NY - clearsky starviewing 
        Rockland Astro Club. Anthony Wayne Rec Pk, picnic field. Free, 
        cancelled for clouds. www.rocklandastronomy.com 
    20:00 - Susan Rose Obsy - LI - clearsky starviewing  
        Amat Obsrs Soc. capus of Custer Institt. Sessions concurrent 
        with Custer's own events. Free, cancelled for clouds. 
        www.aosny.org, suerose@optonline.net             
    20:00 - Jenny Jump St Forest - NJ - Utd A C of NJ mtg 
        UACNJ Obsy. Indoor talk, clearsky starviewing. Free.  
        www.uacnj.org 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing 
        Astro Soc of Gtr Hartford, Wesleyan U, Van Vleck Obsy. Free. 
        cancelled for clouds. www.asgh.org, 860-872-9069, 
        pparkerrs@cs.com 
    20:00 - Inwood Hill Park - MH cleasky starviewing 
        OCCASIONAL EXTRA SESSIONS; INQUIRE AT CONTACT  
        Inwood Astronomy Project. Meet at park entrance, Seaman Av 
        & Isham St. Free. Cancelled for clouds. 917-529-2359 
        www.inwoodastronomy.org, asonskendall@gmail.com 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 2 

Sun  6 Oct 
    13:15 - Uniondale - LI - Amat Obsrs Soc meeting. 
        Hofstra Univ, Berliner Hall. Free. www.aosny.org, 
        suerose@optonline.net 
     19:00 - Uniondale - LI - clearsky starviewing 
        Hofstra University,Berliner Bdg, Rm 117. Free, 
        adv regn reqd. Cancelled for clouds. 516-463-2759, 
        www.hofstra.edu/Academics, observatory@hofstra.edu 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 

Mon  7 Oct 
    19:00 - Hayden Planetarium - MH -Frontiers lecture 
        'Ancuent vokcanoes of Mercury'. In Kaufmann Gall, enter  at 77 
        St, Cntl Pk W/Columbus Av. $15, adv regn reqd. 212-769-5100, 
        www.amnh.org/programs  

ue  8 Oct 
    14:00 - New York University - MH - astronomy lecture 
        726 Broadway, Rm 940. Various topics in astrophys and 
        relativity. Free. Have GI photo ID for campus security. 
        physics.nyu.edu/events.htm 
    19:30 - Princeton - NJ - Amat Astro Assn of Princeton meeting 
        Princeton U, Peyton Hall. Free. www.princetonastronomy.org, 
        609-737-2575, info@princetonastronomy.org 

Wed  9 Oct 
    10:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 2 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - No Jersey Astro Gp meeting 
        Montclair St Univ, Richardson Hall, Room 232. Free. 
        njastro.org, 973-655-7266 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Centerport - LI - Astro Soc of LI meeting  - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 2 
    21:00 - Poughkeepsie - NY - clearsky starviewing - se Oct 2 

Thu 10 Oct 
    13:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 3 
     19:30 - Morristown - NJ - Morris Museum Astro Soc meeting  
         Morris Museum. Free. 973-386-1848, 973-386-1848,, 
         www.morrismuseum.org/astro-society, info@morrismusem.org, 
         ckkrish@gmail.com 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 3 
Thu 12 Sep 
    20:30 - Piscataway - NJ - clearsky starviewng 
        Rutgers Univ, Schommer Obsy. Free. Cancelled for clouds.  
        732-205-0020, www.physics.rutgers.edu/ast/ast-serin.html  
        pryor@physics.rutgers.edu 


Fri 11 Oct 
    10:00 - Good Housekeeping Resrch Instt - MH - science tour 
        Also 11:30. Hearst Tower, 57 St & 8 Av. Walk thru history and 
        science of product testing center of Good Housekeeping 
        magazine. Free, adv regn reqd. 212-649-5000, 
        ghritours@hearst.com 
     19:00 - Toms River - NJ - Astro Soc of Toms Rv Area meeting 
        Ocean Co Coll, Novins Planetarium. Free. 
        www.astra-nj.org, 732-255-0343, webmaster@astra-nj.org 
    19;00 - 92nd St Y - MH - astronomy show 
        1395 Lexington Av, 92 St. ''Conversations with the stars' with 
         Neil Tyson. $55 and up, adv  regn reqd. www.92y.org, 
         212-415-5500 
   19:30 - Torrington - CT - Litchfield Hills Amat Astro Club mtg 
        Central Congregational Church. Free. lhastro.org, 
        lhastro@gmail.com 
    19:30 - Staten Is Community TV - SI - science show - see Oct 4 
    19:30 - Cranford - NJ - Amat Astro Inc meeting - see Oct 4 
     20:00 - Stamford - CT - astronomy lecture - see oct 4 
    20;00 - Wash'n X'ing - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 

Sat 12 Oct 
    20:00 - New Milford - CT - astronomy lecture  
        McCarthy Obsy, New Miford HS. Indoor lecture, clearsky  
        starviewing. Free. www.mccarthyobservatory.org, 860-354-1595, 
        mccarthyobservatory@gmail.com 
    20:00 - Southold - LI - Custer Institute meeting - see Oct 5 
    20:00 - Jenny Jump St Forest - NJ - Utd A C of NJ mtg - see oct 5 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Inwood Hill Park - MH cleasky starviewing - see Oct 5 
    20:00 - Susan Rose Obsy - LI - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 5 

Sun 13 Oct 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 

Mon 14 Oct 
    all day - whole City - MH - Columbus Day 
        Please check with event contact for session falling on this 
        day by rule or outdated schedule 

Tue 15 Oct 
    18:00 - Inst Stud Anc World - MH - cultural lecruee 
        15 E 84 St, 5/Madison Av. Various topics on history and 
        culture of ancient societies. Free, adv regn reqd. 
        isaw..nyu.edu, isaw@nyu.edu, 212-992-7800 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - Westport Astro Soc meeting 
        Rolnick Obsy. Free. www.was-ct.org, 203-227-0925 

Wed 16 Oct 
    10:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 2 
    15:30 - Courant Institute - MH - science lecture 
        Ctr for Atmosp & Ocean Studies. Weaver Hall, 251 Mercer 
        St. Various topics in geophysics and earth science. Free. 
        caos.cims.nyu.edu, shafer@cims.nyu.edu 
    18:30 - CUNY Grad Ctr - MH - Amer Instt Archaeolgy lecture 
        365 Fifth Av, 34 St.Various topics on archaeology and 
        anthropology. Free, adv regn reqd. GI photo ID required for 
        campus security. www.aia-nysociety.org, 
        info@aia-nysociety.org 
   19:30 - Greenwich - CT - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 2 
    19:30 - nEW bRITTAIN - ct - aSTRO sOC OF gTR hARTFORD MEETING 
        cENTRAL ct sT uNIV, cOPERNICUS pLM. fREE. WWW.ASGH.ORG, 
        860-872-9069, PPARKERRS@CS.COM 
    20:00 - Way Station Pub - BK - Astronomy on Tap meting 
        683 Washington Av & Prospect Pl (Prospect Hts). Informal 
        astronomy discussion in pub setting. Free, one drink purchase 
        reqd. astronomyontap.org/locatons/new-york-city 
    20:00 - York College - QN - astronomy lecture . 
        Core Academic Bdg, Rm AC-2E01. Indoor lecture, clearsky 
        starviewing. Free, adv regn reqd. 718-262-2082, 
        www.york.cuny.edu/centers-institutes/observatory, 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 2 
    20:00 - Centerport - LI - Astro Soc of LI meeting  - see oct 2 
    21:00 - Poughkeepsie - NY - clearsky starviewing - se Oct 2 

Thu 17 Oct 
    13:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 3 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 3 
    20:30 - Piscataway - NJ - clearsky starviewng - see Oct 10 

Fri 18 Oct 
    10:00 - Princeton - NJ - science tour - see Oct 4 
    18:30 - McBurney House - MH - NYSkies Astronomy Seminar  
        DISCUSSION: THE TRANSIT OF MERCURY 
        125 W 14 St, 6/7 Av. Discussion of astronomy topics, show 
        & tell, skywatching reports, news of astro activity in NYSkies 
        territory. Free. nyskies@nyskies.org, www.nyskies.org     
    19:30 - Staten Is Community TV - SI - science show - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Cranford - NJ - Amat Astro Inc lecture 
         Union Co Coll, Smith Audm. Indoor talk, clearsky 
        starviewing. Free. www.asterism.org 
     20:00 - Stamford - CT - astronomy lecture - see oct 4 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:0:0 - Columbia University - MH - astronomy lecture - see Oct 4 
    20;00 - Wash'n X'ing - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:30 - Boonton - NJ - clearsky starviewing  
        Sheep Hill Astro Assn Obsy, Free. Cancelled for  
        clouds. sheephillastro.otg, contacts@sheephillastro.org, 
        wwestura@optonline.net 

Sat 19 Oct 
    all day - various places - MH - Open House New York show 
        Thru Sun 20 Oct. Hundreds of buildings and properties, 
        normally closed from public, are open for visit, tours, talks, 
        demos. Sites in many parts of NYC. Many events run 
        concurrently. Free. Book for each separate event. Advd regn 
        reqd for some. Full list at contact. www.ohny.org. 
    14:00 - Avenues HQ - MH - New York Map Society lecture 
         11 E 26 St, 17th floor. Various topics about map making, 
        cartography, geography.  Free, adv regn reqd. Have GI photo ID 
         for caampus security. www.newyorkmapsociety.org, 
        mapsocietyny@ny@gmail.com 
    18:00 - Danbury - CT - astronomy lecture - see Oct 5 
     20:00 - Ward Pound Ridge - NY - clearsky starviewing 
        Westchester Amat Astro. Meadows Picnic Area. Free. Cancelled 
        for clouds. waa-president@westchesterastronomers.org 
        www.westchesterastronomers.org, 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Inwood Hill Park - MH cleasky starviewing - see Oct 5 
    20:00 - Jenny Jump St Forest - NJ - Utd A C of NJ mtg - see oct 5 
    20:00 - Southold - LI - Custer Institute meeting - see Oct 5 
    20:00 - Susan Rose Obsy - LI - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 5 

Sun 20 Oct 
    14:00 - Airmont - NY - science show 
        Ramapo Challenger Ctr, 225 Rt 29. Multimedia 
       imulation of space missions. $20., director@lhvcc.com, 
        845-257-3416, ramapoparks#ramapo.org, 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 

The 22 Oct 
    14:00 - New York University - MH - astronomy lecture - see oct 8 

Wed 23 Oct 
    10:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 2 
    15:30 - Courant Institute - MH - science lecture - see Oct 16 
    20:00 - Centerport - LI - Astro Soc of LI meeting  - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 2 
    21:00 - Poughkeepsie - NY - clearsky starviewing - se Oct 2 

Thu 24 Oct 
    13:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 3 
    18:00 - Inst Stud Anc World - MH - cultural lecruee - see Oct 15 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 3 

Fri 25 Oct 
    17:30 - Intrepid Museum - MH - Free Friday show 
        Pier 86 and ship. Exhibits, demos, talks. Clearsky movies 
        and starviewing. Free. www.intrepidmuseum.org 
    19:30 - Cranford - NJ - Amat Astro Inc meeting - see Oct 4 
    19:30 - Staten Is Community TV - SI - science show - see Oct 4 
     20:00 - Litchfield - CT - Litchfield Hills A A C lecture 
        White Meml Consrvn Ctr. Free. Indoor lecture, clearsky 
        starviewing. lhaacsec@gmail.com, lhastro.org 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20;00 - Wash'n X'ing - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
     20:00 - Stamford - CT - astronomy lecture - see oct 4 

Sat 26 Oct 
    20:00 - Great Kills Pk - SI - clearsky starviewing 
        Natl Pk Svc. Enter at Hylan Bv to playground; Free. Cancelled 
        for clouds. www.nps.gov/gate, 718-987-6790  n 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 
    20:00 - Jenny Jump St Forest - NJ - Utd A C of NJ mtg - see oct 5 
    20:00 - Inwood Hill Park - MH cleasky starviewing - see Oct 5 
    20:00 - Southold - LI - Custer Institute meeting - see Oct 5 
    20:30 - Voorhees St Pk - NJ - NJ Astro Assn meeting 
        NJAA-HQ, Robinson Obsy. Indoor lecture, clearsky 
        starviewing. Free. www.njaa.org, 908-368-8500 

    20:00 - Susan Rose Obsy - LI - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 5 

Sun 27 Oct 
    15:30 - Greenwich - CT - Astro Soc of Greenwich meeting 
        Greenwich Public Library. Free with musm adm. 
        rickbria@optonline.net, 203-415-6762, astrogreenwich.org 
    20:00 - Central Park - MH - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 4 

Tue 29 Oct 
    14:00 - New York University - MH - astronomy lecture - see oct 8 
    19:30 - New Haven - CT - Astro Soc of New Haven meetinG 
        Yale Univ, Leitner Family Obsy. Indoor talk, clearsky 
        starviewing. Free. www.asnh.org, prez@asnh.org 

Wed 30 Oct 
    10:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 2 
    15:30 - Courant Institute - MH - science lecture - see Oct 16 
    18:00 - Inst Stud Anc World - MH - cultural lecruee - see Oct 15 
    20:00 - Middletown - CT - clearsky starviewing - see oct 2 
    20:00 - Westport - CT - clearsky starviewing  - see Oct 2 
    20:00 - Centerport - LI - Astro Soc of LI meeting  - see oct 2 
    21:00 - Poughkeepsie - NY - clearsky starviewing - se Oct 2 

Thu 31 Oct 
    13:30 - Piscataway - NJ - astronomy lecture - see Oct 3 
    20:00 - Upper Montclair - NJ - clearsky starviewing - see Oct 3 

Events Skipped This Month 
  -----------------------                                          
  EVENT MAY RESUME AT DIFFERENT PLACE OR HOUR; INQUIRE AT CONTACT 
  --------------------------------------
  --------------------------------------
  [AUT] AUTUMN RESUMPTION OF ACTIVITY 
  --------------------------------------
    18:30 - CUNY Graduate Center - MH -'Ciry of sceince' lecture 
        365 5 Av & 34 St, Skylight Room. 'Plants, bioiversity, and the 
        survival of the panet'. Free, adv regn reqd. 
        www.gc.cuny.edu/publicprograms 
    19:00 - NY Academy of Sciences - MH - astronomy lecture 
        'The nystery of our mathematical universe'. $20. www.nyas.org 
   20:30 - Coll of Staten Is - SI - clearsky starviewing 
        Astrophys Obsy. Free, cancelled for clouds. 718-982-2818, 
        csivc.csi.cuny.edu/supernove7/files/home.html, 
        robbins@mail.csi.cuny.edu, 

  --------------------------------------
  [???] UNCERTAIN RESUMPTION OF ACTIVITY 
  --------------------------------------
    11:00 - Upton - LI - Summer Sundays science show 
        Brookhaven Natl Lab.   VBldg 490. ]Beoadband radiometry during 
        Earh CARE: An improved solar radiance-to-flux conversion'. 
        Free, have GI photo ID for campus security. 631-344-2651, 
        www.bnl.gov/evnts 
    18:00 - Columbia University- MH - Ctr for sci and Soc lecture 
       Fauenweather Hall, Room 513. 'Comparing domains of 
        improvisation'. Free, adv regn reqd. 
        212-854-7211, scienceandsociety.columbia.edu 
    18:00 - Hempstead - LI -  Amer Instt Aero & Astro lecture       
       Hofstra Univ, Breslin Hall, rm216 . Various topics in 
         aeronautics and astronautics. 'Observations from the 
        Apollo LM to the Shuttlre and ISS, and beyond'. Free, $7 opt 
        pizza-soda, adv regn reqd.718-812-2727, greghomatas@msn.com 
     20:30 - Princeton - NJ - clearsky starviewing 
         Princeton Univ, Peyton Hall. Free. Cancelled for clouds 
         www.astro.princeton.edu/observatory/publicobserving.php, 
        jeg@astro.princeton.edu, lee@astro.princeton.edu 
    20:300 - Lk Taghkanic St Pk - NY - clearsky starviewing 
        Mid-Hudson Astro Assn. West Beach parking lot. Free,  
        cancelled for clouds. Adv regn reqd with vehicle make, 
        model, plate number for park security. `       
        www.nidhudsonastronomy.org 

General News 
 ----------By october almost all events dormant is summer are waking 
up, filling this NYC Events to overflowing. So,e readers seem 
concerned about the massive oveerlap and conflict of events, specially 
among those offering a practical choice. Wednesday Friday, Saturday 
are the most packed days. Monday and Thursday are the lean days. 
Because each event operator works with its peculiar circumstances, 
there is no feasible way to get events spaced apart more evenly. 
     Readers from  astronomy-poor regions are blown away by NYC Events 
with its dozens and dozens of star-filled activities each month. One 
reader beyond NYSkies turf wailed that in her town there is one -- ONE 
-- astro-event per month. It's a half-hour planetarium show and the 
facility is closed until the next month. 
    Simons Foundtn continues its orgy of astronomy talk that started 
in September 2019. The next one on Oct 2 covers dark matter. Be sure 
to sign up early because Simons lectures fill up quickly. See Oct 2. 
    westport astro Soc has an extra observing session for 'Observe the 
Moon' night on Sat 5 Oct. Its other sessions are on the normal 
Wednesday nights. 
    Please mind the Amer Instt Archaeology and NY Map Society meet in 
different places for each session. Some may ask for ID for entry. It's 
a good plan to carry such ID with you all the time for other 
unexpected incidents. I had mine when i was offered a discount at a 
store in late September. 
    I like your phone calls and emails asking about an event. I do 
remind that the latest official news must come from the event operator 
or sponsor. My info at the instant may be out-of-date. Please inquire 
recta mente at the contact for each event. Yes, if the contact is 
ediurnate, tell me so I can get a current valid one for next month's 
NYC Events. 
    The AOS meeting on Oct 6 features John Pazmino on the current 
Venus evening star show. The talk is a slideshow version of our Sep 6 
Seminar. Mind that the free shuttle bus from Hofstra to the LIRR 
Hempstead station does not run on the 6th, Sunday. Use a taxi at the 
station to get too Berliner Hall on the campus for the meeting.. 
    Events for Open House New York are scattered all over the City 
with many running at the same time. Study the event schedule and plan 
your travels carefully. You likely will do three or four events on 
each day. See Oct 19. 
     1Hayden Plm starts its fall 'Frontiers' series on Oct 7. Plm's 
other series 'Live!' at issue time didn't yet post  its dates.
    Lamont-Doherty Onsy Open House on oct 5 is a must-do show. Until a 
couple years ago the trip to L-D from the City was clumsy by public 
transport. L-D now has free buses between Teachers Collg, 120 St & 
Bway/Amsterdam Av, and the observatory. they run half-hourly all day. 
    Neil Tyson beings her toad show 'Conversations with the stars' to 
92nd St Y on Oct 11. Tickets are theater-priced, yet they sell out 
quickly. Governors Island winds down its 2019 season on 31 October. 
Every one I spoke with tell me their visit was, uh, heavenly. With 
autumn twilight coming in the late hours of each session, you may try 
some starbrowsing with totable scope or binoculars. 

City News 
 -------
    On September 6 NYS Gov Cuomo released pulbic vote for replacing  
vehicle licence plate. The winning design, with ~60%  of the35,000 
votes.    has stylized pix of Niagara Falls, Manhattan skyline and 
Statue of Liberty, Montauk lighthouse. Motorists in 2020  will not 
have to buy the new plate for $25. They in the stead pay $25 to 
inspect the current plate for continued function. Only if the plate is 
out of spec will the new plate, for $25, be required. not 
    'Eclipsed time' is eclipsed! In early September workers in the 
LIRR depot removed the ceiling clock that simulates solar eclipses. It 
 repeatedly broke down within months after unveiling in 1994 . The 
light and motors we unhooked and the clock was regarded as a static 
artpiece.. 'Eclipsed time' was the first stop on the Amat Obsrs Soc;s 
'City of stars' walking tour. No news yet on its status, discarded or 
preserved. 
     NYC Mayor deBlasio quit his presidential quest on 20 September. 
he achieved a full zero-percent favor in most voter polls and 
attracted fully a million dollars in funds. He said hr will finish out 
his dedication to the City. His wife Charlane may try to succede him. 
    NYSkies Astronomy Seminar on Sep 6 had lower attendance from brief 
heavy rain in late afternoon. We on hand studied the current 
apparition of Venus, from mid August to next June. We compared the 
Venus cycle around the zodiac with that of the superior planets and 
Mercury. Mercury and Venus stay within a confined range of elongation 
from the Sun while the other planets can roam thru all angles from 
him. We saw how 'inferior' 'superior' came about from early models of 
the universe. Mars, Jupiter, Saturn moved slower in the zodiac than 
the Sun and were plausibly farther away, higher up, the Sun to be 
superior to him. Mercury and Venus moved faster than sun, placing them 
under, lower then, the Sun as inferiors. We saw how early astronomers 
at first thought Venus was two planets, one for the evening show; 
other, morning. We for this meeting looked at only the instant evening 
show, leaving the following morning show for a later session.  We 
noted that some observers still treat the evening and morning segments 
as two apparitions; others, both as parts of one. The apparition, for 
this session, starts at the superior, farther, conjunction with the 
Sun and runs to the next one. Halfway, when crossing from evening to 
morning sky, Venus passes inferior, nearer, conjunction. We examined 
orbit and sky scenes of Venus at sample dates in the apparition to 
learn how the phase an angular size vary with the planet's location 
relative to Earth and Sun. We found that Venus takes about seven 
months to reach her greatest east elongation but only two to zoom from 
there to inferior conjunction. In fact, for the rest of 2019 Venus is 
a bland globe in the telescope, mostly as a full disc on small size. 
she does pass by other planets, as markers for them in twilight. In 
February 2020 Venus is getting into gibbous phase, half phase in late 
March, and waning crescent thenafter.  In all phases there is no 
definite details on the disc because Venus is blanketed by dense 
opaque reflective atmosphere. any markings discerned are shading and 
relief  in the clouds. We followed a typical phase change, seeing that 
when the crescent is thin, the horns bleed into the night side. 
Sunlight is diffused thru the Venus atmosphere beyond the geometric 
tips of the horns. In extreme cases the just before inferior 
conjunction the horns rap all around the planet to create the rare 
'ring of Venus'. A more subtile effect occurs near maximum elongation, 
which should be also the exact half-moon phase. the atmosphere 
diffuses light into the dark side to delay the optical half-moon shape 
by several days or a week. For those with exquisite eyesight Venus may 
show a crooked line when she is a thin crescent. We found that at 
inferior conjunctions when Venus is several degrees north of the Sun, 
we could at dusk  see her as an evenings tar and in the following dawn 
as a morning star. We discussed a possible trick, given a dark room 
when Venus is in a night sky, like in next spring. Letting her light 
shine thru a covered up window, but for a hole in it, shadows of the 
room fixtures could be seen. John Pazmino saw this a couple times when 
Venus was a morning star. He saw his own shadow on ground during an 
evening star at the Winter Star Party in the 1990s. He never observed 
Venus shadows from his home in evening, likely due to excessive street 
lights and lack of dark vision. We learned about synodic and sidereal 
periods. In modern terms, the sidereal period is the time to complete 
a full circuit of the planet's own orbit. Synodic is the time, as seem 
from Earth, to complete one round of elongations, like superior  
conjunction to conjunction. We saw from diagrams and tables that Venus 
completes five synodic rounds in almost  exactly eight years. Recall 
that a 'year' is the sidereal period of Earth  is her orbit, the 
Babylonians exploited this, and similar matches for other planets, to 
compile tables of position that repeat after the appropriate number of 
years. We recalled the 19-year cycle for the Moon, used for predicting 
eclipses and moon-skip. We saw that with a simple extra maths step the 
Babylonians had almost in hand the correct value for the planet's 
sidereal period, which they had no inkling of. We discussed 'greatest 
brilliancy', recalled by our elders. It was invented in 1920s to give 
the date Venus is at brightest as founded on essentially negligible 
knowledge of optical behavior of Venus atmosphere. In 2005 it was 
replaced by 'maximum lighted area' or similar, as the greatest amount 
of sun-lighted portion of the disc. The dates of the two are only a 
day or two apart, causing no major adjustment in observing programs.We 
saw that each Venus apparition occurs in a different part of the 
zodiac. Each presents. in combination with observer latitude, greater 
or lesser favorable viewing. In general, Venus offers two poor shows, 
two average shows, and one really good show. The poor show keeps Venus  
lose to the horizon, hidden by skyline. Thee good one, like for this 
year, is considered the last of the set of five apparitions, puts 
Venus in high sky, in a full night sky. We found that Venus has 
retrograde loops, not noticed because they occur in bright twilight 
with no stars in the background. We studied an astrology program's 
graph of Venus speed, deg/day, and longitude in the zodiac and a 
geocentric diagram of Venus motion around Earth. Both show the 
retrograde loop. Takeaways were orbit and phase diagrams, sky and 
solar system scenes during this evening viewing period, simulation of 
double inferior conjunction sighting, SOHO satellite picture of Venus 
inferior conjunction, diagram of extended horns sen at 2004 Venus 
transit, sky scenes of greatest east elongation for several synodic 
rounds, calcs of maximum illumination surface, calc of Babylonian 
cycles and sidereal period. 
    Partial weekday express service on Culver line began Sep 16. Toe 
uptown F trains run in 07h block. two downtown, 17h. All f trains 
start and end at Coney Is, but expresses hop to center tracks between 
Jay St and Church AAv. 
    I uploaded revisions to two pieces in our web:

    www.nyskies.org/articles/pazmino/rainb2av.htm 
    www.nyskies.org/articles/pazmino/pazclus.htm 

The first adds news about other subway stations sporting rainbows. The 
second adds discussion of topics related to Pazmino's Cluster. 
    NYSkies Astronomy Seminar on September 20 discussed precession of 
the poles and equinoctes. We learned that precession is the shift in 
Earth's axis to describe a circle in the sky, both north and south. As 
the axis moves along it passes near various stars, each in turn 
becoming the 'north star' for a couple centuries. The complete circuit 
of the pole takes about 26,000 years. At the same time the Earth's 
equators slides westward along the ecliptic to pull the celestial Ra-
dec gird westward against the stars. To state a star's RA-dec the year 
must also be given to fix the grid in place.this year is typicly a 
half-century, like 1900, 1950, 2000.We saw that precession is the 
reaction of the spinning Earth to the gravity pull of Moon and Sun, 
that tugs the axis out of its aim similar to the rotation of a 
spinning top. We peeked at angular motion, noting the correspondence 
with linear motion. We looked at torque, moment of inertia, angular 
velocity. the pull of Sun/Moon causes a change in Earth's angular 
velocity, a vector aligned with the axis. The rotation sped is held 
constant while the direction of axis shifts. This is the same 
precession seen in mechanics and machines.We studied scenes of the 
vernal equinox and autumnal equinox to see how they slide westward 
across the stars. our modern calendar is founded on the equinox 
crossing of the Sun so the date remains the same as now. The 'stars of 
the season' drift eastward at local nightfall. Those of spring now 
become summer stars  in the future and were winter stars in the past. 
We saw how precession alters the location of stars at rising. Such 
stars were often used to flag cultural festivals. Sightlines to them 
were laid out in the skyline or monuments. After several generations 
the line-up no longer worked and the sightline ws either moved or 
abandoned.. We examined the rising of Sirius to track the shift in 
location on the horizon. We examined a diagram of the Great Pyramid 
whose shafts aimed at several stars, including Sirius, when built. 
Today the do longer so. We learned that while many ancient cultures 
suffered from precession, none properly studied it. To them something 
strange is happening with the stars. Hipparchus was first to describe 
precesson as a steady increase of ecliptic longitude of the stars 
because the zero point, vernal equinox, slided westward over time. 
Ecliptic latitudes remained constant. (RA-dec were not used yet in 
western astronomy.) Precession can date structures known to align with 
certain stars. Archaeologists didn't have the tools to compute 
precession and relied on help from astronomers. By the 1990s desktop 
computers and astronomy software allowed archaeologists to run sky 
simulations for themselfs. In some cases they found that certain 
fables told of real celestial events. One was a convention of planets 
in 1953BC, thought to be a cultural story. Modern computer modeling 
showed it really occurred. The model embed precession, allowing a 
positive dating of structures. We found that precession affects 
observing over only a couple decades. We studied scenes of Capella and 
polaris at 50-yr intervals and saw significant changes in their 
coordinates. We followed a made-up attempt to image a small galaxy in 
Virgo. the astronomer set up her camera y the galaxy's coords taken 
from a catalog compiled for the epoch 2000. He picture was empty! The 
galaxy in 2020 is east of her aim pint and missed her camera field of 
view. We learned that the Hubble Space Telescope was bitten by 
precession. HST was completed in about 1980and was loaded with a star 
catalog, zeroed to 1680. HST was set to orbit on the Shuttle. 
Shuffling of the payload and the Challenger incident delayed Hubble 
until 1990. In orbit HST at first missed its targets because it aimed 
at their1980 positions. An updated catalog was uploaded and all was 
well. We noted the difference between the tropical and sidereal ear. 
The former is ganged to our calendar when the Sun crosses the vernal 
equinox. One tropical year later the crossing, by precession, is a bit 
west of the first. to complete a sidereal year, the Sun must move 
along the ecliptic for an other 20 minutes. This is why in planet data 
the Earth orbital period, its sidereal period, is 1.000... year, not 1 
year exactly. We finished with an example of how precession affects 
machines. We looked at a typical large hydroelectric station with 
turbine-generators spinning under water pressure. If a dent, 
imbalance, broken coil occurs, there is a thrust against the spin axis 
that tries to precess it. Being constrained in it housing the axis can 
chatter and scout its bearings. Greg Homatas alerted us at the start 
of the Seminar that ISS flies over the City at about 20:00 EDST. A 
couple minutes early we stepped outside into 14th St look for it. 
People passing by asked what up? ISS shot up from buildings across 14 
St like a flying star as bright as Venus. It soared overhead and 
whizzed behind our Seminar hall. The dozen folk with us were awed to 
see ISS, which they only heard or read about.We also had a lively 
banter about the Nile River culture and Earth satellite orbits. 
Takeaways were diagrams of of Earth axis gyration, ecliptic-equator 
planes slipping, drift of seasonal stars, polaris and celestial pole, 
vernal and autumnal equinox areas of sky, rising of Sirius, diagram of 
shafts in Great Pyramid, coord shift for Csapella, simulated imaging 
of galaxy, diagram and pictures of water power turbine. 
    On 27 Sep NYC DOT won court OK to convert 14th St into a car-free 
corridor starting on 30 Sep. The plan was repeatedly delayed by 
opponents. Buses and commercial vehicles will run in the center lanes. 
and Momentary pick-up/drop-off traffic use curb lanes. Street  already 
has markings and some physical structures, bypassed by all traffic so 
far.Apprival may be further challenged  in October. 

Sky News
 ------
     September 2019 was a relief from the heavy bouts of rain and 
cloud so far this year.  Many nights started with cloud/rain and 
cleared up late, or vice versa. Most days were cool and breezy in 
classical autumn weather. No Milky Way sightings, just good DSO and 
planet observing. 
    Example of the frustration observers suffer with weather was Sep 
6. In late afternoon if rained strongly, discouraging some NYSkiers to 
pass up the evening Seminar. it stopped raining by the start of 
Seminar. Rain broke out again shortly after the Seminar and most of us 
were indoors on trains going home. Rain ended for the night near 
midnight. In owl hours it cleared up to reveal star-studded sky. 
refreshing breeze. A few observers noted excellent stargazing, but no 
Milky Way sightings. Several DSOs stood out clearly,like And Gx, Dbl 
Cl, Pleiades. In dawn sky clouded over. 
    By late September some observer are catching sight of Venus, 
skirting horizon after sunset. She is gradually drifting eastward from 
sun, to reach maximum east elongation in March 2020. Venus is still a 
small full-moon disc. 
    On Sep 2 a weak,tornado sweeeped thru Manorville LI during brief 
violent thunderstorm. it touched down at 16:33 EDST, tore up trees and 
utility poles, ripped off structural fixtures during its 5-min 2-1/2 
km path. No reported injuries or deaths. 
   September 2019 had a block of dates whose number sequence was the 
same frontward and backward. This happened from Sep 10 thru 19. When 
written in folded short form, we had 9/10/19, 9/11/19, ... ,918/19, 
9/19/19. 
    ISS on 20 Sep ~20:00 EDST thrilled observers in NYSkies. It was a 
flying star soaring SW, overhead, NE. This was the brightest flight of 
many in mid-late September, equal to Venus. others were magn -1 to -2. 
Our Seminar took a break to watch this pass. We attracted a dozen 
people, e who  were awed to actually see ISS, not just read and herr 
about it. 
    A bolide exploded over mohawk Vy and Adirondack area of NYS on Sep 
2 ~17:02 EDST. Detonation was heard in VT, QC, PA. In NYskies a strong 
thunderstorm probably masked the noise. Uranus and Neptune move into 
evening sky in high sky. Neptune is in aquarius; Uranus, Aries. latter 
is for binoculars to inspect as a 6th magnitude wandering star. 
Neptune needs a small scope and detailed finder chart. 
    'Tribute in light' shined on sep 11 into hazy humid air. For John 
Pazmino at 21h EDST the beams reached 24.7km where they blended into 
the sky. Height measurements varied across NYSkies from changing 
thickness of haze during the night. Beams were  tested several times 
on prior nights but heights seem to be taken only on the 11th.