GENERAL NEWS ABOUT COMET HALE-BOPP 1995-O1 ---------------------------------------- John Pazmino NYSkies Astronomy Inc www.nyskies.org email@example.com 1995 September 1
Introduction ---------- This series of articles was written during the era of comet Hale- Bopp in 1955-1997. They show the build up of excitement as the comet strengthened and document some of the comet's record-smashing behavior. Because Hale-Bopp was so brilliant and showy, many astronomers accept that it may be the grandest comet they'll see in their lifetime. For sure as at mid 2009 there was no other comet that matched or rivaled it. The articles are collected here into one file under the date of the first of them. They were treated to minor editing.
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POTENTIALLY BRILLIANT COMET, 1995 01 HALE-BOPP -------------------------------------------- 1995 September 1
[The information for this new comet comes from various Internet posts, including those from Mark Kaye, Gary Kronk, and Paul Schlyter. The ephemeris for 1995 was calcked by John Pazmino using Deep Space.]
Excitement is mounting over a slow moving 11th magnitude glow spotted in Sagittarius on 22 July 1995 by Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp, both using 40cm reflectors. We already have a pretty good idea of the path the object, comet 1995 01 (Hale-Bopp), will take as it enters the inner solar system in early 1997. The "O" is the letter, not the numeral. The big question is: How bright will it become? The answer depends a lot on whether the comet, still beyond Jupiter, is now undergoing an outburst that makes it much brighter than normally. Nevertheless, Brian Marsden announced on IAUC 6202, August 4th [of 1995], that this may become a spectacular comet for the northern hemisphere in late March and early April of 1997, as bright as magnitude -1.7! Marsden adds that several features of Hale-Bopp's orbit are reminiscent of the Great Comet of 1811, which remained visible for 17 months and sported two tails, one of which grew to 70 degrees long.
Discovery ------- After several months of no comet discoveries (one of the longest dry spells in recent years), on 24 July  Alan Hale (Cloudcroft NM) and Thomas Bopp (near Stanfield AZ) independently reported a new comet. The comet was discovered by Hale shortly after 11 PM local time on 22 July 1995 and was independently found by Bopp about a half hour later. The comet was then in Sagittarius not far from M70. It was diffuse, with some condensation, and about magnitude 10.5. Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams made the announcement on IAUC 6187 on 24 July. IAUC 6188 listed numerous precise positions that had been received from Australia and Japan after confirmation. A prediscovery image was announced on IAUC 6198. R McNaught of Anglo-Australian Observatory found the image on a plate exposed by C Cass on 22 April 1993[!]. The comet's total magnitude was then 18 and the coma was 0.4 arcmin across. The orbit given on IAUC 6198 indicates the comet was then 13.1 AU from the Sun
Observations ---------- Observations made during the first few days after discovery indicate the comet was magnitude 10.5 - 11. It had some condensation and possibly a short tail toward the north. The coma was about 1 or 2 arcmin in diameter. As at start of August various observers indicate the comet is magnitude 10.5, about 2 to 3 arcmin across, and weakly condensed. There is still a trace of a tail, or a slight elongation of the coma, towards the north. IAUC 6194 notes that CCD imaging by W Offutt (Cloudcroft NM) during 24-31 July seemed to indicate the coma was shrinking. It was also mentioned that Z Sekanina (JPL) examined the measurements Offutt obtained from his images and commented that the coma may be spiral shaped, similar to that shown by comet Schwassmann-Wachmann-1 when it undergoes an outburst. IAUC 6191 on 26 July gave the first orbit computation (listed as highly uncertain). Based on 57 positions obtained on 24-26 July, it indicated the comet would pass perihelion in early 1997! IAUC 6194 on 1 August gave a parabolic orbit based on 208 positions obtained during 24 July to 1 August. This new orbit, which is still considered "somewhat uncertain", had a perihelion date of 1 April 1997 and a perihelion distance of 0.9 AU. McNaught's prediscovery image was announced on IAUC 6198 and enabled Marsden to compute a very precise orbit. This new orbit indicated the general correctness of the orbit on IAUC 6194, except that the comet is moving in a long-period ellipse with a period of about 4,000 years, but the original orbit may have had a period of about 3,200 years. Marsden comments that comet Hale-Bopp "is not on its first pass from the Oort Cloud". The orbit from IAUC 6198, based on 248 positions, is as follows (equinox 2000.0); these are used in the ephemeris below:
Epoch=1995 October 10.0 TT Perih = 1997 April 1.3922 TT Eccen = 0.996348 Perih Dist = 0.916702 AU Arg of Perih = 130.4405 deg Asc Node = 282.4733 deg Incl = 88.8797 deg.
The comet's brightness trend is still a matter of question. The brightness in April 1993 is about 4 magnitudes fainter than the predicted magnitude based on the comet's currently accepted brightness model. Although this is a photographic magnitude and may run a little faint, this observation still offers additional evidence that the comet may be experiencing an outburst. It is, however, interesting that McNaught also announced that the comet was not visible on a plate exposed on 1 September 1991. The plates in question have normal magnitude limits of 21 and the predicted magnitude for the 1991 observation should have been only one magnitude less than that of the 1993 observation. The explanation might be that the comet was also undergoing an outburst at the time of the 1993 photograph. On the other hand, it could indicate that the current brightness model does not fit this comet and might need to be revised. Additional observations are needed before an accurate brightness model can be developed. An ephemeris for the remainder of 1995 appears below. It employs a somewhat more optimistic magnitude forecast, since it now appears that Hale-Bopp wasn't going through a temporary outburst when discovered.
Ephemeris for 1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) during the rest of 1995 --------------------------------------------------------- Absolute Magnitude: -1.96 Magnitude Coefficient: 10.00 Time of Observations: 20:54 EST Starting JD=2449938.5793) Period: 3976.91 Years Ephemeris computed for J2000.0
DATE RA (J2000) DECL AU AU ELONG PHASE PA MAGN 1995 hr mn deg mn f/Sun f/Earth f/Sun deg tail calc ------ -- ---- --- -- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ---- AUG 28 18 22.7 -30 50 6.840 6.289 119.3 7.4 83.5 10.4 SEP 7 18 19.3 -30 22 6.754 6.358 109.0 8.1 85.6 10.4 SEP 17 18 17.1 -29 54 6.668 6.438 98.9 8.6 87.3 10.3 SEP 27 18 16.2 -29 26 6.581 6.521 89.0 8.8 88.5 10.3 OCT 7 18 16.5 -28 58 6.493 6.604 79.3 8.7 89.4 10.3 OCT 17 18 17.9 -28 31 6.405 6.681 69.7 8.4 90.1 10.2 OCT 27 18 20.3 -28 4 6.316 6.748 60.4 7.9 90.7 10.2 NOV 6 18 23.7 -27 37 6.227 6.801 51.1 7.1 91.1 10.1 NOV 16 18 27.8 -27 11 6.138 6.836 42.0 6.2 91.6 10.1 NOV 26 18 32.7 -26 45 6.047 6.850 33.1 5.1 92.2 10.0 DEC 6 18 38.1 -26 18 5.957 6.842 24.2 3.9 93.2 10.0 DEC 16 18 43.9 -25 51 5.865 6.808 15.4 2.6 95.8 9.9 DEC 26 18 50.2 -25 22 5.773 6.748 6.9 1.2 105.6 9.8
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IT'S COMING IN! ------------- 1996 August 1
Comet Hale-Bopp is coming in! Altho found over a year ago, it was a tiny dim smudge in Sagittarius until spring 1996. Now it's starting to flourish in our evening sky within easy binocular reach from the City. It moves slowly across the stars in Scutum, Serpens, and Ophiuchus all thruout the summer and fall. Hale-Bopp will leave us for a while in the winter when the Sun pulls it into his twilight glare. If you can right now spot M11, M13, or M15, examples of conspicuous DSOs, you'll have no problem with Hale-Bopp. Because of its slow motion you'll be able to follow Hale-Bopp across spells of cloudy weather. What a welcome relief from the mad dash of Hyakutake in this past spring! Binoculars show Hale-Bopp as a well-defined patch with a brighter center. Depending on the local sky clarity, you may notice an oval or wedge shape to it. While no or a small Moon is always best, Hale-Bopp is visible under a large Moon in a tempered form. You'll see just the condensed core like a misty star. The tail remains short over the months. The Comet is still far from the Sun and our perspective is more or less along its length. Do bear in mind that, like with Hyakutake, the length and pizazz of the tail is quite sensitive to your local sky conditions. The table was generated from Deep Space with the orbital elements of mid-March 1996 from JPL. The chart [omitted] was produced from the same elements with Earth Centered Universe. Both are moxied for the evening hours in New York. Only minor changes occur with newer orbital refinements.
T: 1997 APR 1.16687000 Peri: 130.59440000 | e: 0.99504000 Node: 282.47090000 | (J2000.0) q: 0.91412000 i: 89.42830000 |
Absolute Magnitude: -2.11 Magnitude Coefficient: 10.00 Period: 2501.97 Years Ephemeris computed for equinox 2000.0
1996 RA (H,M) D (D,M) R DELTA ELONG PHASE PA MAG ------ -------- ------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- --- JUL 15 18 33.1 -10 23 3.756 2.785 160.0 5.3 125.2 5.9 JUL 25 18 18.8 -9 26 3.647 2.743 148.4 8.4 111.8 5.7 AUG 4 18 5.4 -8 32 3.537 2.734 136.2 11.4 105.6 5.6 AUG 14 17 53.7 -7 43 3.425 2.752 124.2 14.1 101.7 5.4 AUG 24 17 44.1 -7 0 3.313 2.790 112.7 16.4 98.7 5.3 SEP 3 17 37.0 -6 23 3.199 2.840 101.6 18.0 96.0 5.2 SEP 13 17 32.3 -5 50 3.084 2.896 91.1 19.0 93.2 5.1 SEP 23 17 30.0 -5 20 2.968 2.951 81.2 19.5 90.3 5.0 OCT 3 17 29.9 -4 51 2.851 2.998 71.9 19.5 86.9 4.8 OCT 13 17 31.8 -4 22 2.732 3.033 63.2 19.0 83.0 4.7 OCT 23 17 35.6 -3 49 2.612 3.052 55.0 18.2 78.2 4.5 NOV 2 17 41.1 -3 11 2.490 3.051 47.5 17.1 72.3 4.3 NOV 12 17 48.1 -2 26 2.368 3.027 40.8 15.8 64.8 4.0 NOV 22 17 56.5 -1 30 2.244 2.980 35.0 14.6 55.2 3.8 DEC 2 18 6.3 -0 21 2.119 2.909 30.5 13.6 42.9 3.5 (beyond 2 December the Comet is in the twilight zone of the Sun)
R = distance from Sun in AU; 1 AU = 150,000,000 kilometers DELTA = distance from Earth in AU; 1 AU = 150,000,000 kilometers ELONG = angular distance between Comet and Sun on the sky in degrees PHASE = angular distance between Earth and Sun as seen from Comet PA = angular position of tail in degrees; 0 = N, 90 = E MAG = total magnitude of Comet based on recent observations
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MAGNITUDE ESTIMATION METHODS -------------------------- 1996 September 1
[Because of the comet fever in the AAA the question came up about assessing the brightness of a comet. A comet is a diffuse patch whereas the comparison stars are points. You are trying to gage one kind of visual target against an other kind. This is an age-old syndrome among astronomers: just look at the riotous variation in the cited brightness for deepsky objects! So I extracted thus this piece from the International Comet Quarterly website section on currently visible comets. It is a good summary of methods for assessing a comet's brightness, with some trivial spot editing.]
Some contributors are now starting to specify the magnitude estimation method that is used (this is not required, but is for observations submitted to The International Comet Quarterly). The goal of making a magnitude estimate is to obtain the total integrated brightness of the comet's head or coma. This is done by comparing defocused stars, of known brightness, to the comet. Specifically, the average surface brightness of the comet is compared with the surface brightness of defocused stars. Here is a quick summary of the different methods: The Sidgwick or In-Out Method: The in-focus comet is compared to the. out-of-focus comparison stars. It is very important that the defocused stars must be the same size as the comet. This is the most popular method and works very well for diffuse comets. Strongly condensed objects, such as C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp), are more difficult to estimate using this method because it is very difficult to determine the comet's "average" surface brightness. The Bobrovnikoff or Out-Out Method: The comet and comparison stars are put out-of-focus together. Very easy to do. Works well for very strongly condensed objects. Can result in a significant underestimate of brightness in very diffuse and/or large comets. The Morris or Equal-Out Method: This method was developed to bridge the gap between the Sidgwick (works well for really diffuse comets) and Bobrovnikoff (best for strongly condensed comets) Methods. The comet is put slightly out-of-focus - just enough to "flatten" the brightness profile so that it is easier to determine the comet's average surface brightness. The average surface brightness of the comet is memorized as is its out-of-focus diameter. The comparison stars are then defocused to the comet's out-of-focus diameter (somewhat larger than its in-focus diameter). This.method is considered more difficult than the other two methods by some observers. Note that when the comet is very condensed, this method "becomes" the Bobrovnikoff Method and when the comet is very diffuse, it becomes the Sidgwick Method. Thus, the other two methods are subsets of this method. There are other methods, most notably the Beyer or Way-Out Method, but the ones given above are the methods recommended for making magnitude estimates today. Each method requires practice, particularly when comparison stars are not in the comet's field.
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UPDATED COMMENTS ON THE 1993 OBSERVATION OF C/1995 01 (HALE-BOPP) --------------------------------------------------------------- 1997 January 1
[Dr Brian Marsden, CBAT, posted this statement on his website on 24 October 1996. For a wider distribution to the paper-based world, he let EYEPIECE reprint it here. It relates to a prediscovery image of Comet Hale-Bopp from 1993.]
Since late 1995 there have been suggestions in the Internet stating that the 1993 Apr. 27 prediscovery image (cf. IAUC 619B) of this comet is "not correct", with orbit solutions indicating it to be in error by as much as 30 arcsec. When the image was first noticed, by R. H. McNaught on a plate taken with the U.K. Schmidt, it was some 9 arcmin from the preliminary ephemeris then available (1995 Aug. 1). It should be also noted that McNaught's reexamination in late 1995 showed his measurement to be good to well within 1 arcsec. Furthermore, his measurement of the trail of the faster-moving minor planet (3343) on the same plate demonstrated that the exposure was correctly timed. As I surmised long ago, the problem with fitting the comet's orbit is quite clearly that, if one tried a standard orbit solution, the sheer weight of the 1995 data would throw a large residual into the single 1993 position, basically on account of the systematic errors in the GSC reference-star system used for most of the measurements. After all, the many hundred 1995 observations covered only a small part of the sky. By substantially reducing (e.g., by a factor of ten) the relative weight of the 1995 data, it was in fact possible to fit the 1993 position completely satisfactorily. The alternative of invoking the effects of nongravitational forces on the comet seemed very unlikely at the comet's large heliocentric distance, even if one believed, as some did, that the comet's great activity involved enormous relative mass loss in terms of vaporizing carbon monoxide. If the surmise were correct, it would presumably be found that the fit to the 1993 Apr. 27 observation would again improve as the comet's observed arc extended, with the observations during 1996, though continuing to be numerous, covering a greater area of sky. This did in fact happen, acceptable orbital solutions being possible quite early in the year with the relative weight of the current data reduced to only a factor of five. since then there has been further steady improvement. Finally, the latest orbit solution, given on MPC 28052, utilizing 1385 observations extending to 1996 Oct. 16, is fully able to incorporate the 1993 observation with unit weight:
C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) Epoch 1997 Mar. 13.0 TT =JOT 2450520.5 T 1997 Apr. 1.13453 TT Marsden q 0.9141030 (2000.0) P Q z +0.0053639 Peri. 130.59083 -0.13311754 -0.17030684 +/-0.0000018 Node 282.47069 +0.28232889 +0.93779364 e 0.9950969 Incl. 89.42936 +0.95003690 -0.30255358
C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) Epoch 1996 Nov. 13.0 TT = JOT 2450400.5 T 1997 Apr. 1.13080 TT Marsden q 0.9141849 (2000.0) P Q z +0.0053093 Peri. 130.58402 -0.13312498 -0.17032095 +/-0.0000018 Node 282.47167 +0.28221190 +0.93782748 e 0.9951463 Incl. 89.43066 +0.95007062 -0.30244072
The (O-C) of the 1993 observation is -1.2 arcsec in R.A. and -0.4 arcsec in Decl. Actually, the point has been reached where it really ~ does not matter whether the 1993 observation is included or not. The outcome is almost precisely the same whether considered in terms of the orbital elements and their formal errors or in terms of the near- perihelic sky position, which is now formally predictable to better than 1 arcsec. Statements to the effect that occultations by the comet's nucleus can be predicted more accurately using orbital solutions that omit the 1993 observation are thus patently false. This is not to say that occultations near the time of perihelion can yet be precisely predicted. Sources of error are the small nuclear size, the star catalogues used and nongravitational forces in the cometary motion. The first of these will require last-minute relative measurements of comet nucleus and star to be occulted to better than 0.05 arcsec. In the absence of such measurements, star-catalogue errors are likely to result in near-perihelic unpredictability to some arcseconds. The possible effects of nongravitational forces are unknown, and they proved to be a severe problem in predicting the post-perihelic position of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), for example. While both comets are clearly very active, one might surmise that the larger relative size of C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) will result in little nongravitational influence on this comet's motion. As noted on IAUC 6287, the last perihelion passage of C/1995 01 occurred close to 4200 years ago. In the absence of nongravitational forces near perihelion, the next return after 1997 will be some 2380 years hence.
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IT'S FLYING DOWN THE WIRE! ------------------------ 1997 February 1
Comet Hale-Bopp, 1995-01, is heading onward toward the Sun virtually on schedule and within prediction. Despite some temporary trepidation in brightness last year, Hale-Bopp is already a mean comet hitting magnitude 3 in early January 1997. While mid northern observers lost it during conjunction with the Sun, arctic countries with their round-the-clock night followed it all along. By readtime it'll be prominent in the predawn sky even from the city. Who will turn in the first sighting from anywhere within the five boros? From Manhattan? From below 59th Street? From Times Square? From ... [snip]. The chart here [omited] gives the track thru the stars at 05:00 New York time -- NOT at Oh UT -- as a representative hour for viewing. It was prepared from Deep Space from the orbit elements listed below. Hale-Bopp is a binocular sight in Aquila, Sagitta, Vulpecula, and Cygnus. In darker skies or with sharper vision, it should be seen by naked eye. The trick is to first see Altair and Deneb. These two stars anchor the path in the sky. Altair is 15 degrees above the horizon pretty due east in mid February at 05:00; Deneb, 30 degrees, northeast. They may be blocked by skyline or horizon shmutz. Your chances improve steadily during February for two reasons. The Sun moves away from this region, lifting it into the early morning darkness. Hale-Bopp brightens to 2nd magnitude by end January, 1-1/2 by mid February, 1 by end February. Assuming all goes well we got a big bright beautiful comet in the morning sky as February closes. The tail, too, will lengthen both from intrinsic growth and our more sideways perspective of it. The chart shows a nominal size based on a 1/10 AU (15 million kilometer) true length. If you fix to photograph the comet, start practicing now! So many readers were saddened by Hyakutake because they didn't prepare for any picture-taking. You better get out and polish your star photography skills, particularly in the winter night. And, please!, get your film developed right away so you can compare the results with your field notes! Film and processing are truly very cheap education. Being that you'll be looking in predawn, with dark-adapted eyes, with most local lights shut off, under clear [and cold] winter skies, there's a chance you'll catch a glimpse of the 'summer' Milky Way. If you do, let us know! Give the usual dissa & datta. For those with comet-plotting programs, the elements, tweaked for 12 January 1997, are:
peri date = 1997 April 1.13427 peri AU = 0.9141138 excentric = 0.9950938 inclinat = 89.42956 deg asc node = 282.47088 deg arg peri = 130.58980 deg
The crossover into the evening sky for us in the City is about March lOth when Hale-Bopp moves into Cepheus. It'll then be low in the northwest shining at magnitude zero! And then ... .
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THE HALE-BOPP COMET IS STUPENDOUS! -------~------------------------ 1997 May 1
I had to give up on summarizing the reports of comet Hale-Bopp from our readers simply due to the sheer number of reports! I got notes about the comet mostly via email and -- surprise! -- mostly from comet-watchers not affiliated with the Association. Why? EYEPIECE and the Association are quite well regarded far beyond our cozy praecinct in the city. The one lament everyone had when giving a report was about the weather. The entire country was hit by contrary weather, either allnight clouds or clouds surrounding the comet-viewing hour. Some people report trying for many days -- or weeks! -- before finally getting a clear sight. So, what I have here are the names, dates, and places of the observers listed chronologicly. Yes, a lot of you folk buttonholed me at our meetings to recount your views. But everything blends together and I can not separate who saw what from where at when. Please, if you want to be in our list, do come back to me. I'll get uou in the continuation of this table next month. Once a person spotted Hale-Bopp, he generally followed it regularly thereafter. In the table I indicate such a person by 'all Mar' or 'all Apr' in place of logging in each report from that person. Oh, one other thing. Please deliberately state in the body of your report the actual date, hour, and observing site. Do NOT count on these being noted correctly in the email header or signature. Merely saying, "I went out yesterday from work and saw the comet ..." is too loose. Try, "I went out on March 17th, 6:00PM, from work in Jackmanville, Missouri, and saw the comet ...". OK? Thanks!
Stephen Lieber 29 Jan dawn Rockaway pt QN Marshall Applewhite & John Craig all Feb dawn Rancho Santa Fe CA John Leppert all Feb dawn Rocklake ND Cindy Stepanowicz all Feb dawn near Utica NY Keith Knapp 10s Feb dawn Albuquerque NM Saul Levy 14 Feb dawn Tucson AZ Leonard Lakey 17 Feb dawn Wichita KS Richard Wilhite 17 Feb dawn Camden SC EIleen Thomas 19 Feb dawn Ward Hill SI Jim Van Nuland 19 Feb dawn San Jose CA Bruce Kamiat 20 Feb dawn Mitchell Sq MH John Pazmino 20s Feb dawn Lenox Hill MH Jan Wallace 21 Feb dawn Santa Clara CA Arline Caldwell 22 Feb dawn Amagansett LI Kevin Smith 23 Feb dawn Greenville VA Joe Primavera 24 Feb dawn Carl Schurz Pk MH Jan Wallace 24 Feb dawn San Clara CA Neil Tyson 27 Feb dawn near Nassau Mall MH Annette Bartle all Mar dusk Lenox Hill MH Joe DiNapoli all Mar dusk Staten Is SI John Gerometta all Mar dusk Phoenix AZ Paul Goelz all Mar dusk Rochester Hills MI Bob Hirschfeld all Mar dusk Phoenix AZ Steve Kaye all Mar dusk Canarsie BK Cindy Stepanowicz all Mar dusk near Utica NY EIleen Thomas all Mar dusk Ward Hlll SI Doyle Beaty all Mar both Quito, Ecuador Micahel Boschat all Mar both Halifax NS Annemarie Franklin & Wendy Carlos all Mar both Union Sq MH Bruce Kamiat all Mar both Mitchell Sq MH John Leppert all Mar both Rocklake ND Michael Monahan all Mar both Westtown NY John Pazmino all Mar both Gelfand's Hill BK George Zay all Mar both La Mesa CA Leonard Lakey 2 Mar dawn Wichita KS Richard Plasencia 3 Mar dawn Cedar Rapids IA Nick Martin 5 Mar dusk Bonnyton House, Ayrshire, Scotland Nick Martin 6 Mar dawn Bonnyton House, Ayrshire, Scotland Ken Poshedly 6 Mar dawn near Atlanta GA Thomas Jonard 7 Mar dawn Columbus OH Bruce Kamiat 7 Mar dawn Mitchell Sq MH Hark Wagner 7 Mar dawn near Lassen Peak CA Joe Dinapoli & Eileen Thomas 7 Mar dusk Penn West MH Rick Fluck 7 Mar dusk Idaho Falls ID Brent Watso 7 Mar dusk Arches Natl Pk UT Graham Beedle 8 Mar dawn Monifieth, Dundee, Scotland Rob Lightbown 8 Mar dawn Caribou, ME Peter Michell 8 Mar dusk 44dN 80d35'W Brent Watson 8 Mar dusk Arches Natl Pk UT Daviid Clark 9 Mar dawn 44deg 27'N 68deg 52'W Ted deMontagne 9 Mar dawn Sheep Meadow, Central Park MH Hartmut Frommert 9 Mar dusk Radolfzell, Germany Leonard Lakey 9 Mar dusk Wichita KS Doyle Beaty 10s Mar both Quito, Ecuador Rik Davis 10s Mar both near Charlottesville VA Hartmut Frommert 10 Mar dawn Radolfzell, Germany Steven Martin 10 Mar dawn Andover KS Bruce Bawcom 10 Mar dusk Folsom CA Tom Rutherford 10 Mar dusk Blountville TN Brian Halbrook 11 Mar dawn Marquette MI Jacob Thumberger 11 Mar dawn Hamilton OH Joseph Enrico 12 Mar dawn Oceanside LI Greg Crinklaw 12 Mar dusk San Diego CA Roger Schuelle 12 Mar dawn Cupertino CA Don Young 12 Mar dusk Rochester NY Carl Fortunato 13 Mar dawn Bronx BX bon McInnis 13 Mar dusk Victoria BC Don Young 13 Mar dusk Rochester NY Victor Ruiz 15 Mar dawn Gran Canaria, Spain Harald Schenk 15 Mar dusk Sheboygan WI John Stewart 15 Mar dusk Columbus OH Bruce Kamiat & 4 others 16 Mar dawn Fahnestock St Pk NY Paul Goelz 19 Mar dawn Rochester Hills MI Dan Boudreault 16 Mar dusk Ft Bragg NC Hartmut Frommert 17 Mar dusk 47.75N, 9E, Germany Micheal Monahan 18 Mar dawn Westtoen NY Paul Goelz 19 Mar dawn Rochester Hills MI Jim Mellom 20s Mar dusk near Tripoli, Tunisia Chris Steyaert 20s.Mar dusk Central Park South MH Dave Turkel 20s Mar dusk Yorkville MH David McConnell 22 Mar dusk LaGuardia Airport QN Claudio Veliz 22 Mar dusk Long Island City QN Joe Enrico 23 Mar dusk Oceanside LI David Greenberg 23 Mar dusk Mt Kisco NY Brian Halbrook & Mike Beauchamp 23 Mar dusk AuTrain MI Alexander Simon 23 Mar dusk Forest Hills QN George Acosta 24 Mar dusk Richmond Hill QN Graham Beedie 24 Mar dusk Monifieth, Dundee, Scotland Myrna Coffino 24 Mar dusk Yorkville MH Basil McDonnell 24 Mar dusk West New Brighton SI Adele Peckford 24 Mar dusk Sherman-Verdi Sq MH Daniel Smith 24 Mar dusk Commack LI James Wing 24 Mar dusk Auburndale QN Andy Downey 26 Mar dusk Central OH Dave Franks 26 Mar dusk Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Rick Rules 26 Mar dusk Wichita KS Paul Rybski 26 Mar dusk Whitewater WI Susanne Vlcek 26 Mar dusk Gibsons BC George Acosta 27 Mar dusk Richmond Hill QN Tony Cecce 27 Mar dusk Corning NY Mark Wagner 28 Mar dusk San Gatos CA Mark Wagner 29 Mar dusk Fremomt Park CA Richard Plasencia 30 Mar dusk Cedar Rapids IA Annette Bartle all Apr dusk Lenox Hill MH Myrna Coffino all Apr dusk Yorkville MH John Pazmino all Apr dusk Gelfand's Hill BK Cindy Stepanowicz all Apr dusk near Utica NY Eileen Thomas all Apr dusk Ward Hill SI Jan Wallace all Apr dusk Santa Clara CA Dave Lord 1 Apr dusk Coconut Creek FL Gene Kwiecinski 1 Apr dusk Pelham Bay Pk BX Larry Gerstman 1 Apr dusk Carnegie Hill MH about 30 AAAers 2 Apr dusk Amer Mus of Natl Hist MH Joe Brooks 2 Apr dusk Utica NY Ludek Novotny 2 Apr dusk Borup, Denmark Michael Boschat & 4 others 3 Apr dusk Beaverbank NS Saul Levy 3 Apr dusk Tucson AZ Doyle Beaty 4 Apr dusk Quito, Ecuador Jack Dittrlck 4 Apr dusk Kew Gardens Hills QN Basil McDonnell 4 Apr dusk West New Brighton SI David Nevin & Nancy Mohrmann 4 Apr dusk Jones Beach LI Mark Prober 4 Apr dusk Jones Beach LI Pong Sum 4 Apr dusk Lawrenceville NJ Mark Wagner & Richard Navarrete 4 Apr dusk Henry Coe St Pk CA Claudio Veliz 4 Apr dusk Columbia U Obsy MH about 800 New Yorkers 5 Apr dusk Frisbee Hill, Central Pk MH Doyle Beaty 5 Apr dusk Quito, Ecuador Brian Nestel 5 Apr dusk WaImea HI Gerald Pearson 5 Apr dusk Rock Island IL Harald Schenk 9 Apr dusk Sheboygan, WI Anton Sidoti 9 Apr dusk Danbury CT James Wing 9 Apr dusk Auburndale QN nine AAAers 10 Apr-dusk AAA-HQ MH
That's it for now. I'll continue the list -- and include all catchup and corrected reports -- next month.
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THE HALE-BOPP COMET DAZZLES THE WORLD ----------------------------------- 1997 June 1
I continue my list of Hale-Bopp reports still flooding into EYEPIECE from all over the world.. Like for the list last month the accounts are sent In mostly by email from observers not yet affiliated with the Association. There were a bunch of reports I had to toss for the idiotic. omission of some crucial fact. Like the placename of the viewing site. Or the explicit date and hour of viewing. Or -- no kidding! -- the identify.of the very observer. Please, never assume the header or signature will correctly disclose the proper site, date, and name. Put them deliberately in the text. The weather still is a chronic source of complaint. Many of you saw the comet on one occasion and then were blocked off of any further views for days and weeks by clouds! Yet others toughed it out thru haze, mist, skyglow, cold (it's still winter in northern Great Lakes and Canada). We're getting delirious sightinqs from the southern hemisphere. After the many long months listening to northern stories and ogling northern imagery, the south folk are absolutely wild about this comet. Yes, there are a flock of catchup listings here. A lot of you got hold of me at our various meetings and blurted out a story. But in the din around me I lost.track of who saw what and where and when. Thanks for telling me again in calmer moments! Now to answer a frequent question. 'all Mar', 'all Feb', &c do not mean the comet was observed on all or even most days in the month. It means that sightings were made repeatedly in the month. This notation I use to collect multiple sightings in a month into one entry. Uh, ummm, what happened to the actual stories themselves? We got them all safe and sound. Should I post them on the Association's web site at www.aaa.org? [By 2009 these reports may be lost.]
Joe Fedrick all Feb dawn CoOp City BX Frank Schmidt all Feb dawn Queens Village QN Tony Hoffman 13 Feb dawn Brooklyn NY Jan Wallace 24 Feb dawn Santa Clara CA correction Lee Baltin all Mar dawn Key Biscayne FL Katrina Eubanks all Mar dusk Dover DE Joe Fedrick all Mar dusk CoOp City BX Frank Schmidt all Mar dusk Queens viilage QN Peter Michell 8 Mar dusk Orangeville ON correction David Clark 9 Mar dawn Bucksport ME correction Tony Hoffman 9 Mar dawn Brooklyn NY Antoinette Booth 11 Mar dawn Bay Ridge BK Hartmut Frommert 17 Mar dusk Radolfzell, Germany correction George Acosta all Apr dusk Richmond Hill QN Annette Bartle all Apr dusk Lenox Hill MH Myrna Coftino all Apr dusk Yorkville MH Joe Fedrick all Apr dusk CoOp City BX Alexandre Millot all Apr dusk Noumea, New Caledonia John Pazmino all Apr dusk Gelfand's Hill BK Cindy Stepanowicz all Apr dusk near Utica NY Eileen Thomas all Apr dusk Ward Hill S1 Howard Timmons all Apr dusk Lithonia GA Jan Wallace all Apr dusk Santa Clara CA Sid Lee 10 Apr dusk Calgary AB David Miller 13 Apr dusk Hills Creek, Australia George Zay 13 Apr dusk La Mesa CA Jean-Christophe Millot 14 Apr dusk Noumea, New Caledonia Doyle Baeaty 19 Apr dusk Quito, Ecuador Willie Koorts 21 Apr dusk Sutherland, South Africa Tony Beresford 25 Apr dusk Adelaide, Australia Nick Hansen 25 Apr dusk Adelaide, Australia Elvis Hargrove 29 Apr dusk Rio Grande Valley TX Maxine Oliri & Michael Oliri 29 Apr dusk Adelaide, Australia Peter Williams 29 Apr dusk Geelong, Australia John Pazmino all May dusk Gelfand's Hill BK Eileen Thomas all May dusk Ward Hill 51 Mathew Milne 3 May dusk Palmerston North, New Zealand Tony Beresford 4 May dusk Adelaide, Australia Ralph Buttigieg 6 May dusk Sydney, Austraila Tony Crece 7 May dusk Corning NY Penny Orell 7 May dusk Monmouth NJ Peter Williams 7 May dusk Geelong, Australia Jan Kuceraa 11 May dusk Brno, Czech Republic
That's it for now. But the reports keep rolling into EYEPIECE right up thru presstime! I'll post them in next month's lIst. And if this comet remains within naked-eye range until New Year's of 1998 I'll have to continue this column for a while. But, hey!, you may never, like never, see an other comet like Hale-Bopp for the rest of you life. Just go to sleep tonight with that thought, OK?
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HALE-BOPP STILL GOING STRONG -------------------------- 1997 July 1
I continue the listing of Hale-Bopp reports and fill in the catchup ones, too. Hale-Bopp is sliding into the twilight glow in the southern hemisphere by late Hay and early June. Hence. the influx of reports sort of 'shut off'. Don't worry. This comet is coming back into our morning sky in the fall.
Antoinette Booth 1 Apr dusk Owls Head Pk BK Antoinette Booth 2 Apr dusk Owls Head Pk BK Andy Christy 25 Apr dusk Canberra, Australia Andy Christy all Hay dusk Canberra, Australia Alexandre Hillot 10 Jun dusk Noumea, New Caledonia
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