John Pazmino
 NYSkies Astronomy Inc
 1995 September 1
    This series of articles was written during the era of comet Hale-
Bopp in 1955-1997. They show the build up of excitement as the comet 
strengthened and document some of the comet's record-smashing 
    Because Hale-Bopp was so brilliant and showy, many astronomers 
accept that it may be the grandest comet they'll see in their 
lifetime. For sure as at mid 2009 there was no other comet that 
matched or rivaled it. 
    The articles are collected here into one file under the date of 
the first of them. They were treated to minor editing.
 = = = = =
 1995 September 1
[The information for this new comet comes from various Internet posts, 
including those from Mark Kaye, Gary Kronk, and Paul Schlyter. The 
ephemeris for 1995 was calcked by John Pazmino using Deep Space.]
    Excitement is mounting over a slow moving 11th magnitude glow 
spotted in Sagittarius on 22 July 1995 by Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp, 
both using 40cm reflectors. We already have a pretty good idea of the 
path the object, comet 1995 01 (Hale-Bopp), will take as it enters the 
inner solar system in early 1997. The "O" is the letter, not the 
numeral. The big question is: How bright will it become? The answer 
depends a lot on whether the comet, still beyond Jupiter, is now 
undergoing an outburst that makes it much brighter than normally. 
    Nevertheless, Brian Marsden announced on IAUC 6202, August 4th [of 
1995], that this may become a spectacular comet for the northern 
hemisphere in late March and early April of 1997, as bright as 
magnitude -1.7! Marsden adds that several features of Hale-Bopp's 
orbit are reminiscent of the Great Comet of 1811, which remained 
visible for 17 months and sported two tails, one of which grew to 70 
degrees long. 
    After several months of no comet discoveries (one of the longest 
dry spells in recent years), on 24 July [1995] Alan Hale (Cloudcroft 
NM) and Thomas Bopp (near Stanfield AZ) independently reported a new 
    The comet was discovered by Hale shortly after 11 PM local time on 
22 July 1995 and was independently found by Bopp about a half hour 
later. The comet was then in Sagittarius not far from M70. It was 
diffuse, with some condensation, and about magnitude 10.5. 
    Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams made the announcement on 
IAUC 6187 on 24 July. IAUC 6188 listed numerous precise positions that 
had been received from Australia and Japan after confirmation. 
    A prediscovery image was announced on IAUC 6198. R McNaught of 
Anglo-Australian Observatory found the image on a plate exposed by C 
Cass on 22 April 1993[!]. The comet's total magnitude was then 18 and 
the coma was 0.4 arcmin across. The orbit given on IAUC 6198 indicates 
the comet was then 13.1 AU from the Sun 
    Observations made during the first few days after discovery 
indicate the comet was magnitude 10.5 - 11. It had some condensation 
and possibly a short tail toward the north. The coma was about 1 or 2 
arcmin in diameter. 
    As at start of August various observers indicate the comet is 
magnitude 10.5, about 2 to 3 arcmin across, and weakly condensed. 
There is still a trace of a tail, or a slight elongation of the coma, 
towards the north. 
    IAUC 6194 notes that CCD imaging by W Offutt (Cloudcroft NM) 
during 24-31 July seemed to indicate the coma was shrinking. It was 
also mentioned that Z Sekanina (JPL) examined the measurements Offutt 
obtained from his images and commented that the coma may be spiral 
shaped, similar to that shown by comet Schwassmann-Wachmann-1 when it 
undergoes an outburst. 
    IAUC 6191 on 26 July gave the first orbit computation (listed as 
highly uncertain). Based on 57 positions obtained on 24-26 July, it 
indicated the comet would pass perihelion in early 1997! IAUC 6194 on 
1 August gave a parabolic orbit based on 208 positions obtained during 
24 July to 1 August. This new orbit, which is still considered 
"somewhat uncertain", had a perihelion date of 1 April 1997 and a 
perihelion distance of 0.9 AU. 
    McNaught's prediscovery image was announced on IAUC 6198 and 
enabled Marsden to compute a very precise orbit. This new orbit 
indicated the general correctness of the orbit on IAUC 6194, except 
that the comet is moving in a long-period ellipse with a period of 
about 4,000 years, but the original orbit may have had a period of 
about 3,200 years. Marsden comments that comet Hale-Bopp "is not on 
its first pass from the Oort Cloud". 
    The orbit from IAUC 6198, based on 248 positions, is as follows 
(equinox 2000.0); these are used in the ephemeris below: 
                  Epoch=1995 October 10.0 TT 
    Perih = 1997 April 1.3922 TT      Eccen = 0.996348 
    Perih Dist = 0.916702 AU          Arg of Perih = 130.4405 deg 
    Asc Node = 282.4733 deg           Incl = 88.8797 deg. 
    The comet's brightness trend is still a matter of question. The 
brightness in April 1993 is about 4 magnitudes fainter than the 
predicted magnitude based on the comet's currently accepted brightness 
model. Although this is a photographic magnitude and may run a little 
faint, this observation still offers additional evidence that the 
comet may be experiencing an outburst. It is, however, interesting 
that McNaught also announced that the comet was not visible on a plate 
exposed on 1 September 1991. The plates in question have normal 
magnitude limits of 21 and the predicted magnitude for the 1991 
observation should have been only one magnitude less than that of the 
1993 observation. 
    The explanation might be that the comet was also undergoing an 
outburst at the time of the 1993 photograph. On the other hand, it 
could indicate that the current brightness model does not fit this 
comet and might need to be revised. Additional observations are needed 
before an accurate brightness model can be developed. 
    An ephemeris for the remainder of 1995 appears below. It employs a 
somewhat more optimistic magnitude forecast, since it now appears that 
Hale-Bopp wasn't going through a temporary outburst when discovered. 
 Ephemeris for 1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) during the rest of 1995
 Absolute Magnitude: -1.96              Magnitude Coefficient: 10.00 
 Time of Observations: 20:54 EST        Starting JD=2449938.5793) 
 Period: 3976.91 Years                  Ephemeris computed for J2000.0 
 DATE    RA (J2000) DECL   AU     AU   ELONG  PHASE    PA   MAGN 
 1995    hr mn    deg mn  f/Sun f/Earth f/Sun   deg    tail  calc 
 ------  -- ----  --- --  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  ----
 AUG 28  18 22.7  -30 50  6.840  6.289  119.3    7.4   83.5  10.4 
 SEP  7  18 19.3  -30 22  6.754  6.358  109.0    8.1   85.6  10.4 
 SEP 17  18 17.1  -29 54  6.668  6.438   98.9    8.6   87.3  10.3 
 SEP 27  18 16.2  -29 26  6.581  6.521   89.0    8.8   88.5  10.3 
 OCT  7  18 16.5  -28 58  6.493  6.604   79.3    8.7   89.4  10.3 
 OCT 17  18 17.9  -28 31  6.405  6.681   69.7    8.4   90.1  10.2 
 OCT 27  18 20.3  -28  4  6.316  6.748   60.4    7.9   90.7  10.2 
 NOV  6  18 23.7  -27 37  6.227  6.801   51.1    7.1   91.1  10.1 
 NOV 16  18 27.8  -27 11  6.138  6.836   42.0    6.2   91.6  10.1 
 NOV 26  18 32.7  -26 45  6.047  6.850   33.1    5.1   92.2  10.0 
 DEC  6  18 38.1  -26 18  5.957  6.842   24.2    3.9   93.2  10.0 
 DEC 16  18 43.9  -25 51  5.865  6.808   15.4    2.6   95.8   9.9 
 DEC 26  18 50.2  -25 22  5.773  6.748    6.9    1.2  105.6   9.8 
 = = = = =
 1996 August 1 
    Comet Hale-Bopp is coming in! Altho found over a year ago, it was 
a tiny dim smudge in Sagittarius until spring 1996. Now it's starting 
to flourish in our evening sky within easy binocular reach from the 
    It moves slowly across the stars in Scutum, Serpens, and Ophiuchus 
all thruout the summer and fall. Hale-Bopp will leave us for a while 
in the winter when the Sun pulls it into his twilight glare. 
    If you can right now spot M11, M13, or M15, examples of 
conspicuous DSOs, you'll have no problem with Hale-Bopp. Because of 
its slow motion you'll be able to follow Hale-Bopp across spells of 
cloudy weather. What a welcome relief from the mad dash of Hyakutake 
in this past spring! 
    Binoculars show Hale-Bopp as a well-defined patch with a brighter 
center. Depending on the local sky clarity, you may notice an oval or 
wedge shape to it. While no or a small Moon is always best, Hale-Bopp 
is visible under a large Moon in a tempered form. You'll see just the 
condensed core like a misty star. 
    The tail remains short over the months. The Comet is still far 
from the Sun and our perspective is more or less along its length. Do 
bear in mind that, like with Hyakutake, the length and pizazz of the 
tail is quite sensitive to your local sky conditions. 
    The table was generated from Deep Space with the orbital elements 
of mid-March 1996 from JPL. The chart [omitted] was produced from the 
same elements with Earth Centered Universe. Both are moxied for the 
evening hours in New York. Only minor changes occur with newer orbital 
    T: 1997 APR 1.16687000        Peri: 130.59440000 | 
    e: 0.99504000                 Node: 282.47090000 | (J2000.0) 
    q: 0.91412000                    i:  89.42830000 | 
 Absolute Magnitude: -2.11   Magnitude Coefficient: 10.00 
 Period: 2501.97 Years  Ephemeris computed for equinox 2000.0 
 1996    RA (H,M)  D (D,M)  R      DELTA  ELONG  PHASE  PA     MAG 
 ------  --------  -------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  ---
 JUL 15  18  33.1  -10  23  3.756  2.785  160.0    5.3  125.2  5.9 
 JUL 25  18  18.8   -9  26  3.647  2.743  148.4    8.4  111.8  5.7 
 AUG  4  18   5.4   -8  32  3.537  2.734  136.2   11.4  105.6  5.6 
 AUG 14  17  53.7   -7  43  3.425  2.752  124.2   14.1  101.7  5.4 
 AUG 24  17  44.1   -7   0  3.313  2.790  112.7   16.4   98.7  5.3 
 SEP  3  17  37.0   -6  23  3.199  2.840  101.6   18.0   96.0  5.2 
 SEP 13  17  32.3   -5  50  3.084  2.896   91.1   19.0   93.2  5.1 
 SEP 23  17  30.0   -5  20  2.968  2.951   81.2   19.5   90.3  5.0 
 OCT  3  17  29.9   -4  51  2.851  2.998   71.9   19.5   86.9  4.8 
 OCT 13  17  31.8   -4  22  2.732  3.033   63.2   19.0   83.0  4.7 
 OCT 23  17  35.6   -3  49  2.612  3.052   55.0   18.2   78.2  4.5 
 NOV  2  17  41.1   -3  11  2.490  3.051   47.5   17.1   72.3  4.3 
 NOV 12  17  48.1   -2  26  2.368  3.027   40.8   15.8   64.8  4.0 
 NOV 22  17  56.5   -1  30  2.244  2.980   35.0   14.6   55.2  3.8 
 DEC  2  18   6.3   -0  21  2.119  2.909   30.5   13.6   42.9  3.5 
   (beyond 2 December the Comet is in the twilight zone of the Sun) 
     R = distance from Sun in AU; 1 AU = 150,000,000 kilometers 
 DELTA = distance from Earth in AU; 1 AU = 150,000,000 kilometers 
 ELONG = angular distance between Comet and Sun on the sky in degrees 
 PHASE = angular distance between Earth and Sun as seen from Comet 
    PA = angular position of tail in degrees; 0 = N, 90 = E 
   MAG = total magnitude of Comet based on recent observations 
 = = = = =
 1996 September 1
[Because of the comet fever in the AAA the question came up about 
assessing the brightness of a comet. A comet is a diffuse patch 
whereas the comparison stars are points. You are trying to gage one 
kind of visual target against an other kind. This is an age-old 
syndrome among astronomers: just look at the riotous variation in the 
cited brightness for deepsky objects! So I extracted thus this piece 
from the International Comet Quarterly website section on currently 
visible comets. It is a good summary of methods for assessing a 
comet's brightness, with some trivial spot editing.] 
    Some contributors are now starting to specify the magnitude 
estimation method that is used (this is not required, but is for 
observations submitted to The International Comet Quarterly). The goal 
of making a magnitude estimate is to obtain the total integrated 
brightness of the comet's head or coma. This is done by comparing 
defocused stars, of known brightness, to the comet. Specifically, the 
average surface brightness of the comet is compared with the surface 
brightness of defocused stars. Here is a quick summary of the 
different methods: 
    The Sidgwick or In-Out Method: The in-focus comet is compared to 
the. out-of-focus comparison stars. It is very important that the 
defocused stars must be the same size as the comet. This is the most 
popular method and works very well for diffuse comets. Strongly 
condensed objects, such as C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp), are more difficult 
to estimate using this method because it is very difficult to determine 
the comet's "average" surface brightness. 
    The Bobrovnikoff or Out-Out Method: The comet and comparison stars 
are put out-of-focus together. Very easy to do. Works well for very 
strongly condensed objects. Can result in a significant underestimate 
of brightness in very diffuse and/or large comets. 
    The Morris or Equal-Out Method: This method was developed to 
bridge the gap between the Sidgwick (works well for really diffuse 
comets) and Bobrovnikoff (best for strongly condensed comets) Methods. 
The comet is put slightly out-of-focus - just enough to "flatten" the 
brightness profile so that it is easier to determine the comet's 
average surface brightness. The average surface brightness of the 
comet is memorized as is its out-of-focus diameter. The comparison 
stars are then defocused to the comet's out-of-focus diameter 
(somewhat larger than its in-focus diameter). This.method is 
considered more difficult than the other two methods by some 
observers. Note that when the comet is very condensed, this method 
"becomes" the Bobrovnikoff Method and when the comet is very diffuse, 
it becomes the Sidgwick Method. Thus, the other two methods are 
subsets of this method. 
    There are other methods, most notably the Beyer or Way-Out Method, 
but the ones given above are the methods recommended for making 
magnitude estimates today. Each method requires practice, particularly 
when comparison stars are not in the comet's field.
 = = = = =
 1997 January 1
[Dr Brian Marsden, CBAT, posted this statement on his website on 24 
October 1996. For a wider distribution to the paper-based world, he 
let EYEPIECE reprint it here. It relates to a prediscovery image of 
Comet Hale-Bopp from 1993.] 
    Since late 1995 there have been suggestions in the Internet 
stating that the 1993 Apr. 27 prediscovery image (cf. IAUC 619B) of 
this comet is "not correct", with orbit solutions indicating it to be 
in error by as much as 30 arcsec. When the image was first noticed, by 
R. H. McNaught on a plate taken with the U.K. Schmidt, it was some 9 
arcmin from the preliminary ephemeris then available (1995 Aug. 1). It 
should be also noted that McNaught's reexamination in late 1995 showed 
his measurement to be good to well within 1 arcsec. Furthermore, his 
measurement of the trail of the faster-moving minor planet (3343) on 
the same plate demonstrated that the exposure was correctly timed. 
    As I surmised long ago, the problem with fitting the comet's orbit 
is quite clearly that, if one tried a standard orbit solution, the 
sheer weight of the 1995 data would throw a large residual into the 
single 1993 position, basically on account of the systematic errors in 
the GSC reference-star system used for most of the measurements. After 
all, the many hundred 1995 observations covered only a small part of 
the sky. By substantially reducing (e.g., by a factor of ten) the 
relative weight of the 1995 data, it was in fact possible to fit the 
1993 position completely satisfactorily. The alternative of invoking 
the effects of nongravitational forces on the comet seemed very 
unlikely at the comet's large heliocentric distance, even if one 
believed, as some did, that the comet's great activity involved 
enormous relative mass loss in terms of vaporizing carbon monoxide. 
    If the surmise were correct, it would presumably be found that the 
fit to the 1993 Apr. 27 observation would again improve as the comet's 
observed arc extended, with the observations during 1996, though 
continuing to be numerous, covering a greater area of sky. This did in 
fact happen, acceptable orbital solutions being possible quite early 
in the year with the relative weight of the current data reduced to 
only a factor of five. since then there has been further steady 
improvement. Finally, the latest orbit solution, given on MPC 28052, 
utilizing 1385 observations extending to 1996 Oct. 16, is fully able 
to incorporate the 1993 observation with unit weight: 
     C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) Epoch 1997 Mar. 13.0 TT =JOT 2450520.5 
 T 1997 Apr. 1.13453 TT                                   Marsden
 q  0.9141030             (2000.0)            P              Q 
 z +0.0053639       Peri. 130.59083     -0.13311754    -0.17030684
 +/-0.0000018       Node  282.47069     +0.28232889    +0.93779364 
 e  0.9950969       Incl.  89.42936     +0.95003690    -0.30255358 
     C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) Epoch 1996 Nov. 13.0 TT = JOT 2450400.5 
 T 1997 Apr. 1.13080 TT                                    Marsden 
 q  0.9141849             (2000.0)            P               Q 
 z +0.0053093       Peri. 130.58402     -0.13312498    -0.17032095 
 +/-0.0000018       Node  282.47167     +0.28221190    +0.93782748 
 e  0.9951463       Incl.  89.43066     +0.95007062    -0.30244072 
    The (O-C) of the 1993 observation is -1.2 arcsec in R.A. and -0.4 
arcsec in Decl. Actually, the point has been reached where it really ~ 
does not matter whether the 1993 observation is included or not. The 
outcome is almost precisely the same whether considered in terms of 
the orbital elements and their formal errors or in terms of the near-
perihelic sky position, which is now formally predictable to better 
than 1 arcsec. 
    Statements to the effect that occultations by the comet's nucleus 
can be predicted more accurately using orbital solutions that omit the 
1993 observation are thus patently false. This is not to say that 
occultations near the time of perihelion can yet be precisely 
predicted. Sources of error are the small nuclear size, the star 
catalogues used and nongravitational forces in the cometary motion. 
The first of these will require last-minute relative measurements of 
comet nucleus and star to be occulted to better than 0.05 arcsec. In 
the absence of such measurements, star-catalogue errors are likely to 
result in near-perihelic unpredictability to some arcseconds. The 
possible effects of nongravitational forces are unknown, and they 
proved to be a severe problem in predicting the post-perihelic 
position of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), for example. While both 
comets are clearly very active, one might surmise that the larger 
relative size of C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) will result in little 
nongravitational influence on this comet's motion. 
    As noted on IAUC 6287, the last perihelion passage of C/1995 01 
occurred close to 4200 years ago. In the absence of nongravitational 
forces near perihelion, the next return after 1997 will be some 2380 
years hence. 
 = = = = =
 1997 February 1
    Comet Hale-Bopp, 1995-01, is heading onward toward the Sun 
virtually on schedule and within prediction. Despite some temporary 
trepidation in brightness last year, Hale-Bopp is already a mean comet 
hitting magnitude 3 in early January 1997. While mid northern 
observers lost it during conjunction with the Sun, arctic countries 
with their round-the-clock night followed it all along.
    By readtime it'll be prominent in the predawn sky even from the 
city. Who will turn in the first sighting from anywhere within the 
five boros? From Manhattan? From below 59th Street? From Times Square? 
From ... [snip]. 
    The chart here [omited] gives the track thru the stars at 05:00 
New York time -- NOT at Oh UT -- as a representative hour for viewing. 
It was prepared from Deep Space from the orbit elements listed below. 
Hale-Bopp is a binocular sight in Aquila, Sagitta, Vulpecula, and 
Cygnus. In darker skies or with sharper vision, it should be seen by 
naked eye. 
    The trick is to first see Altair and Deneb. These two stars anchor 
the path in the sky. Altair is 15 degrees above the horizon pretty due 
east in mid February at 05:00; Deneb, 30 degrees, northeast. They may 
be blocked by skyline or horizon shmutz. 
    Your chances improve steadily during February for two reasons. The 
Sun moves away from this region, lifting it into the early morning 
darkness. Hale-Bopp brightens to 2nd magnitude by end January, 1-1/2 
by mid February, 1 by end February. Assuming all goes well we got a 
big bright beautiful comet in the morning sky as February closes. 
    The tail, too, will lengthen both from intrinsic growth and our 
more sideways perspective of it. The chart shows a nominal size based 
on a 1/10 AU (15 million kilometer) true length. 
    If you fix to photograph the comet, start practicing now! So many 
readers were saddened by Hyakutake because they didn't prepare for any 
picture-taking. You better get out and polish your star photography 
skills, particularly in the winter night. And, please!, get your film 
developed right away so you can compare the results with your field 
notes! Film and processing are truly very cheap education. 
    Being that you'll be looking in predawn, with dark-adapted eyes, 
with most local lights shut off, under clear [and cold] winter skies, 
there's a chance you'll catch a glimpse of the 'summer' Milky Way. If 
you do, let us know! Give the usual dissa & datta. 
    For those with comet-plotting programs, the elements, tweaked for 
12 January 1997, are: 
    peri date = 1997 April 1.13427     peri AU  = 0.9141138 
    excentric = 0.9950938              inclinat = 89.42956 deg 
    asc node  = 282.47088 deg          arg peri = 130.58980 deg 
    The crossover into the evening sky for us in the City is about 
March lOth when Hale-Bopp moves into Cepheus. It'll then be low in the 
northwest shining at magnitude zero! And then ... . 
 = = = = =
 1997 May 1
    I had to give up on summarizing the reports of comet Hale-Bopp 
from our readers simply due to the sheer number of reports! I got 
notes about the comet mostly via email and -- surprise! -- mostly 
from comet-watchers not affiliated with the Association. Why? EYEPIECE 
and the Association are quite well regarded far beyond our cozy 
praecinct in the city. 
    The one lament everyone had when giving a report was about the 
weather. The entire country was hit by contrary weather, either 
allnight clouds or clouds surrounding the comet-viewing hour. Some 
people report trying for many days -- or weeks! -- before finally 
getting a clear sight. 
     So, what I have here are the names, dates, and places of the 
observers listed chronologicly. Yes, a lot of you folk buttonholed me 
at our meetings to recount your views. But everything blends together 
and I can not separate who saw what from where at when. Please, if you 
want to be in our list, do come back to me. I'll get uou in the 
continuation of this table next month. 
     Once a person spotted Hale-Bopp, he generally followed it 
regularly thereafter. In the table I indicate such a person by 'all 
Mar' or 'all Apr' in place of logging in each report from that person. 
     Oh, one other thing. Please deliberately state in the body of 
your report the actual date, hour, and observing site. Do NOT count on 
these being noted correctly in the email header or signature. Merely 
saying, "I went out yesterday from work and saw the comet ..." is too 
loose. Try, "I went out on March 17th, 6:00PM, from work in 
Jackmanville, Missouri, and saw the comet ...". OK? Thanks! 
 Stephen Lieber            29 Jan dawn  Rockaway pt QN 
 Marshall Applewhite & 
   John Craig             all Feb dawn  Rancho Santa Fe CA
 John Leppert             all Feb dawn  Rocklake ND
 Cindy Stepanowicz        all Feb dawn  near Utica NY
 Keith Knapp              10s Feb dawn  Albuquerque NM
 Saul Levy                 14 Feb dawn  Tucson AZ
 Leonard Lakey             17 Feb dawn  Wichita KS
 Richard Wilhite           17 Feb dawn  Camden SC
 EIleen Thomas             19 Feb dawn  Ward Hill SI
 Jim Van Nuland            19 Feb dawn  San Jose CA 
 Bruce Kamiat              20 Feb dawn  Mitchell Sq MH
 John Pazmino             20s Feb dawn  Lenox Hill MH
 Jan Wallace               21 Feb dawn  Santa Clara CA
 Arline Caldwell           22 Feb dawn  Amagansett LI
 Kevin Smith               23 Feb dawn  Greenville VA
 Joe Primavera             24 Feb dawn  Carl Schurz Pk MH
 Jan Wallace               24 Feb dawn  San Clara CA
 Neil Tyson                27 Feb dawn  near Nassau Mall MH
 Annette Bartle           all Mar dusk  Lenox Hill MH
 Joe DiNapoli             all Mar dusk  Staten Is SI
 John Gerometta           all Mar dusk  Phoenix AZ 
 Paul Goelz               all Mar dusk  Rochester Hills MI
 Bob Hirschfeld           all Mar dusk  Phoenix AZ
 Steve Kaye               all Mar dusk  Canarsie BK 
 Cindy Stepanowicz        all Mar dusk  near Utica NY
 EIleen Thomas            all Mar dusk  Ward Hlll SI
 Doyle Beaty              all Mar both  Quito, Ecuador
 Micahel Boschat          all Mar both  Halifax NS
 Annemarie Franklin &
   Wendy Carlos           all Mar both  Union Sq MH
 Bruce Kamiat             all Mar both  Mitchell Sq MH
 John Leppert             all Mar both  Rocklake ND
 Michael Monahan          all Mar both  Westtown NY
 John Pazmino             all Mar both  Gelfand's Hill BK
 George Zay               all Mar both  La Mesa CA
 Leonard Lakey              2 Mar dawn  Wichita KS
 Richard Plasencia          3 Mar dawn  Cedar Rapids IA
 Nick Martin                5 Mar dusk  Bonnyton House, Ayrshire, Scotland
 Nick Martin                6 Mar dawn  Bonnyton House, Ayrshire, Scotland
 Ken Poshedly               6 Mar dawn  near Atlanta GA
 Thomas Jonard              7 Mar dawn  Columbus OH
 Bruce Kamiat               7 Mar dawn  Mitchell Sq MH
 Hark Wagner                7 Mar dawn  near Lassen Peak CA
 Joe Dinapoli &
   Eileen Thomas            7 Mar dusk  Penn West MH
 Rick Fluck                 7 Mar dusk  Idaho Falls ID
 Brent Watso                7 Mar dusk  Arches Natl Pk UT
 Graham Beedle              8 Mar dawn  Monifieth, Dundee, Scotland
 Rob Lightbown              8 Mar dawn  Caribou, ME
 Peter Michell              8 Mar dusk  44dN 80d35'W 
 Brent Watson               8 Mar dusk  Arches Natl Pk UT
 Daviid Clark               9 Mar dawn  44deg 27'N 68deg 52'W
 Ted deMontagne             9 Mar dawn  Sheep Meadow, Central Park MH
 Hartmut Frommert           9 Mar dusk  Radolfzell, Germany
 Leonard Lakey              9 Mar dusk  Wichita KS
 Doyle Beaty              10s Mar both  Quito, Ecuador
 Rik Davis                10s Mar both  near Charlottesville VA
 Hartmut Frommert          10 Mar dawn  Radolfzell, Germany
 Steven Martin             10 Mar dawn  Andover KS
 Bruce Bawcom              10 Mar dusk  Folsom CA
 Tom Rutherford            10 Mar dusk  Blountville TN
 Brian Halbrook            11 Mar dawn  Marquette MI
 Jacob Thumberger          11 Mar dawn  Hamilton OH
 Joseph Enrico             12 Mar dawn  Oceanside LI
 Greg Crinklaw             12 Mar dusk  San Diego CA
 Roger Schuelle            12 Mar dawn  Cupertino CA
 Don Young                 12 Mar dusk  Rochester NY
 Carl Fortunato            13 Mar dawn  Bronx BX
 bon McInnis               13 Mar dusk  Victoria BC
 Don Young                 13 Mar dusk  Rochester NY
 Victor Ruiz               15 Mar dawn  Gran Canaria, Spain
 Harald Schenk             15 Mar dusk  Sheboygan WI 
 John Stewart              15 Mar dusk  Columbus OH
 Bruce Kamiat &
   4 others                16 Mar dawn  Fahnestock St Pk NY
 Paul Goelz                19 Mar dawn  Rochester Hills MI
 Dan Boudreault            16 Mar dusk  Ft Bragg NC
 Hartmut Frommert          17 Mar dusk  47.75N, 9E, Germany
 Micheal Monahan           18 Mar dawn  Westtoen NY
 Paul Goelz                19 Mar dawn  Rochester Hills MI
 Jim Mellom               20s Mar dusk  near Tripoli, Tunisia
 Chris Steyaert           20s.Mar dusk  Central Park South MH
 Dave Turkel              20s Mar dusk  Yorkville MH
 David McConnell           22 Mar dusk  LaGuardia Airport QN
 Claudio Veliz             22 Mar dusk  Long Island City QN
 Joe Enrico                23 Mar dusk  Oceanside LI
 David Greenberg           23 Mar dusk  Mt Kisco NY
 Brian Halbrook &
   Mike Beauchamp          23 Mar dusk  AuTrain MI
 Alexander Simon           23 Mar dusk  Forest Hills QN
 George Acosta             24 Mar dusk  Richmond Hill QN
 Graham Beedie             24 Mar dusk  Monifieth, Dundee, Scotland
 Myrna Coffino             24 Mar dusk  Yorkville MH
 Basil McDonnell           24 Mar dusk  West New Brighton SI
 Adele Peckford            24 Mar dusk  Sherman-Verdi Sq MH
 Daniel Smith              24 Mar dusk  Commack LI
 James Wing                24 Mar dusk  Auburndale QN
 Andy Downey               26 Mar dusk  Central OH
 Dave Franks               26 Mar dusk  Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 Rick Rules                26 Mar dusk  Wichita KS
 Paul Rybski               26 Mar dusk  Whitewater WI
 Susanne Vlcek             26 Mar dusk  Gibsons BC
 George Acosta             27 Mar dusk  Richmond Hill QN
 Tony Cecce                27 Mar dusk  Corning NY
 Mark Wagner               28 Mar dusk  San Gatos CA
 Mark Wagner               29 Mar dusk  Fremomt Park CA
 Richard Plasencia         30 Mar dusk  Cedar Rapids IA
 Annette Bartle           all Apr dusk  Lenox Hill MH
 Myrna Coffino            all Apr dusk  Yorkville MH
 John Pazmino             all Apr dusk  Gelfand's Hill BK
 Cindy Stepanowicz        all Apr dusk  near Utica NY
 Eileen Thomas            all Apr dusk  Ward Hill SI
 Jan Wallace              all Apr dusk  Santa Clara CA
 Dave Lord                  1 Apr dusk  Coconut Creek FL
 Gene Kwiecinski            1 Apr dusk  Pelham Bay Pk BX
 Larry Gerstman             1 Apr dusk  Carnegie Hill MH
 about 30 AAAers            2 Apr dusk  Amer Mus of Natl Hist MH
 Joe Brooks                 2 Apr dusk  Utica NY
 Ludek Novotny              2 Apr dusk  Borup, Denmark
 Michael Boschat &
   4 others                 3 Apr dusk  Beaverbank NS
 Saul Levy                  3 Apr dusk  Tucson AZ
 Doyle Beaty                4 Apr dusk  Quito, Ecuador
 Jack Dittrlck              4 Apr dusk  Kew Gardens Hills QN
 Basil McDonnell            4 Apr dusk  West New Brighton SI
 David Nevin &
   Nancy Mohrmann           4 Apr dusk   Jones Beach LI
 Mark Prober                4 Apr dusk   Jones Beach LI
 Pong Sum                   4 Apr dusk   Lawrenceville NJ
 Mark Wagner &
   Richard Navarrete        4 Apr dusk   Henry Coe St Pk CA
 Claudio Veliz              4 Apr dusk   Columbia U Obsy MH
 about 800 New Yorkers      5 Apr dusk   Frisbee Hill, Central Pk MH
 Doyle Beaty                5 Apr dusk   Quito, Ecuador
 Brian Nestel               5 Apr dusk   WaImea HI
 Gerald Pearson             5 Apr dusk   Rock Island IL
 Harald Schenk              9 Apr dusk   Sheboygan, WI
 Anton Sidoti               9 Apr dusk   Danbury CT
 James Wing                 9 Apr dusk   Auburndale QN
 nine AAAers               10 Apr-dusk   AAA-HQ MH
    That's it for now. I'll continue the list -- and include all 
catchup and corrected reports -- next month.
 = = = = 
 1997 June 1
    I continue my list of Hale-Bopp reports still flooding into 
EYEPIECE from all over the world.. Like for the list last month the 
accounts are sent In mostly by email from observers not yet affiliated 
with the Association. There were  a bunch of reports I had to toss for 
the idiotic. omission of some crucial fact. Like the placename of the 
viewing site. Or the explicit date and hour of viewing. Or -- no 
kidding! -- the identify.of the very observer. 
    Please, never assume the header or signature will correctly 
disclose the proper site, date, and name. Put them deliberately in the 
    The weather still is a chronic source of complaint. Many of you 
saw the comet on one occasion and then were blocked off of any further 
views for days and weeks by clouds! Yet others toughed it out thru 
haze, mist, skyglow, cold (it's still winter in northern Great Lakes 
and Canada). 
    We're getting delirious sightinqs from the southern hemisphere. 
After the many long months listening to northern stories and ogling 
northern imagery, the south folk are absolutely wild about this comet. 
    Yes, there are a flock of catchup listings here. A lot of you got 
hold of me at our various meetings and blurted out a story. But in the 
din around me I lost.track of who saw what and where and when. Thanks 
for telling me again in calmer moments! 
    Now to answer a frequent question. 'all Mar', 'all Feb', &c do not 
mean the comet was observed on all or even most days in the month. It 
means that sightings were made repeatedly in the month. This notation 
I use to collect multiple sightings in a month into one entry. 
    Uh, ummm, what happened to the actual stories themselves? We got 
them all safe and sound. Should I post them on the Association's web 
site at [By 2009 these reports may be lost.] 
 Joe Fedrick         all Feb dawn   CoOp City BX 
 Frank Schmidt       all Feb dawn   Queens Village QN 
 Tony Hoffman         13 Feb dawn   Brooklyn NY 
 Jan Wallace          24 Feb dawn   Santa Clara CA      correction 
 Lee Baltin          all Mar dawn   Key Biscayne FL 
 Katrina Eubanks     all Mar dusk   Dover DE 
 Joe Fedrick         all Mar dusk   CoOp City BX 
 Frank Schmidt       all Mar dusk   Queens viilage QN 
 Peter Michell         8 Mar dusk   Orangeville ON      correction 
 David Clark           9 Mar dawn   Bucksport ME        correction 
 Tony Hoffman          9 Mar dawn   Brooklyn NY 
 Antoinette Booth     11 Mar dawn   Bay Ridge BK 
 Hartmut Frommert     17 Mar dusk   Radolfzell, Germany correction 
 George Acosta       all Apr dusk   Richmond Hill QN 
 Annette Bartle      all Apr dusk   Lenox Hill MH 
 Myrna Coftino       all Apr dusk   Yorkville MH 
 Joe Fedrick         all Apr dusk   CoOp City BX 
 Alexandre Millot    all Apr dusk   Noumea, New Caledonia 
 John Pazmino        all Apr dusk   Gelfand's Hill BK 
 Cindy Stepanowicz   all Apr dusk   near Utica NY 
 Eileen Thomas       all Apr dusk   Ward Hill S1 
 Howard Timmons      all Apr dusk   Lithonia GA 
 Jan Wallace         all Apr dusk   Santa Clara CA 
 Sid Lee              10 Apr dusk   Calgary AB 
 David Miller         13 Apr dusk   Hills Creek, Australia 
 George Zay           13 Apr dusk   La Mesa CA 
          Millot      14 Apr dusk   Noumea, New Caledonia 
 Doyle Baeaty         19 Apr dusk   Quito, Ecuador 
 Willie Koorts        21 Apr dusk   Sutherland, South Africa 
 Tony Beresford       25 Apr dusk   Adelaide, Australia 
 Nick Hansen          25 Apr dusk   Adelaide, Australia 
 Elvis Hargrove       29 Apr dusk   Rio Grande Valley TX 
 Maxine Oliri & 
   Michael Oliri      29 Apr dusk   Adelaide, Australia 
 Peter Williams       29 Apr dusk   Geelong, Australia 
 John Pazmino        all May dusk   Gelfand's Hill BK
 Eileen Thomas       all May dusk   Ward Hill 51 
 Mathew Milne          3 May dusk   Palmerston North, New Zealand 
 Tony Beresford        4 May dusk   Adelaide, Australia 
 Ralph Buttigieg       6 May dusk   Sydney, Austraila 
 Tony Crece            7 May dusk   Corning NY 
 Penny Orell           7 May dusk   Monmouth NJ 
 Peter Williams        7 May dusk   Geelong, Australia 
 Jan Kuceraa          11 May dusk   Brno, Czech Republic 
    That's it for now. But the reports keep rolling into EYEPIECE 
right up thru presstime! I'll post them in next month's lIst. And if 
this comet remains within naked-eye range until New Year's of 1998  
I'll have to continue this column for a while. But, hey!, you may 
never, like never, see an other comet like Hale-Bopp for the rest of 
you life. Just go to sleep tonight with that thought, OK? 
 = = = = =
 1997 July 1
    I continue the listing of Hale-Bopp reports and fill in the 
catchup ones, too. Hale-Bopp is sliding into the twilight glow in the 
southern hemisphere by late Hay and early June. Hence. the influx of 
reports sort of 'shut off'. Don't worry. This comet is coming back 
into our morning sky in the fall. 
 Antoinette Booth     1 Apr dusk   Owls Head Pk BK
 Antoinette Booth     2 Apr dusk   Owls Head Pk BK
 Andy Christy        25 Apr dusk   Canberra, Australia
 Andy Christy       all Hay dusk   Canberra, Australia
 Alexandre Hillot    10 Jun dusk   Noumea, New Caledonia
 = = = = =